Women are dramatically underrepresented in upper level managerial positions. Although they comprise about onethird of all managers and professionals in the workforce Hellwig, & Tedeschi, 1986, women seem to confront a glass ceiling when they seek high level managerial positions. According to a recent survey of the 1,000 largest companies in the United States, less than 4 of their upper level managers are female Ten years later, 1990. A more subtle problem, but one of equal concern, is the way in which women who do achieve managerial positions may be treated. There is good evidence to suggest that, relative to their male counterparts, many female managers encounter serious problems in areas such as pay, prestige of their positions, and evaluations of their abilities and performance see, for example, Mount, & Ellis, 1989 Wittig, & Lowe, 1989.
Equal Opportunities International – Emerald Publishing
Published: Mar 1, 1991