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STATISTICAL CONTROL OF QUALITY

STATISTICAL CONTROL OF QUALITY July, 1942 AIRCRAFT ENGINEERIN G 181 craft Production would accept a properly maintained control chart ; which would seem to put .a factory instituting this method Aircraft Engineering on the footing of being an " approved firm." We understand also that the Ministry of Labour and National Service is arranging, if Devote d t o th e Scienc e an d Practice of Aero ­ it has not already done so, to provide courses in quality control at nautic s and to Allied and Subsidiary certain of its training centres. Whether this service is yet actually in being we do no t know—it has not up to the present been mentioned Branche s of th e Engineerin g Industry in the Ministry's " Engineering Bulletin." Editor: Lieut.-Col. W. Lockwood Marsh, O.B.E.,F.R.Ae.S., M.S.A.E.,F.I.Ae.S. A Matter of Organization There is still some doubt as to the correct position of quality con­ trol in a works' organization. The statistical data used is based on the results of inspection, in that it depends, of course, on the number of rejections. It is, therefore, claimed that it is not a branch of inspection, since inspection merely supplies the basic information E presume that everyone concerned with production in the and it is for the production engineer to interpret the lessons after a aircraft industry or one of its ancillaries—whether as an W study of the charts. On the other hand, it can be argued that it is a aeroplane constructor, sub-contractor or maker of parts or minor tool of production in the sense tha t it is designed to reduce the auxiliary equipment—is by now familiar with what has come to be wastage resulting from the scrapping of defective parts—which known, colloquially, as " Quality control." We publish in this brings it into close touch with salvage. It is not even clear what issue, by courtesy of the SOCIETY OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERS, a is its precise position in the Curtiss-Wright organization. MR. paper read last autumn during the Society's National Aircraft DUN N himself as Quality Director is high up in the hierarchy but, Production Meeting by MR. J. W. DUNN, whose duty it is to direct on the other hand, as we have already pointed out, the actual and co-ordinate quality control and inspection policies of the whole preparation of the charts occupies a very much lower place and the of the Curtiss-Wright group of companies. course of his paper seems to indicate that, in his mind at any rate, it is linked with salvage. Personally, we should have thought that The Question of Nomenclature the production engineer would place it in his immediate personal The original title of the paper was " Airplane Quality Control," staff. and we have retained the phrase in the modified title we have adopted Possibilities of the Method to indicate more clearly its scope. We have, however, done this with some doubts as in fact MR. DUNN deals with the very much There is no doubt that there is considerable opposition to the wider subjects of inspection generally and the organization of whole matter, due largely to inertia perhaps, and that it is easy to salvage—to which he devotes a considerable proportion of his argue that it does not apply to any particular class of engineering space. Indeed, he only appears to mention incidentally, in detailing product. To quote from the Foreword to B.S. 1008, however: the duties of the Quality Supervisor who reports to the Quality " Generally speaking, Quality Control is applicable to any case of Manager a t each plant, " quality control " in the strict sense. The manufacture in which limits must be worked to, and which has as a use of the term in the title is, therefore, rather unfortunate, as it feature large production, continuous flow, or batches of considerable tends towards the loose thinking which is always a danger from the size." From this it can be seen that the potential net is very wide. vague use of technical expressions, it is, for the same reason, per­ haps, a pity that in reprinting B.S. 600 (now 600R) the BRITISH THE EXHAUST-DRIVEN SUPERCHARGER STANDARDS INSTITUTION has entitled it " Quality .Control Charts " We have for some years been seeking information on the design and relegated to a sub-heading the original, much more informative, and construction of exhaust-driven turbo-superchargers without title " The Application of Statistical Methods t o Industrial Standard­ success. In England there has been an almost complete lack of isation and Quality Control"; for it is in the use of statistical interest in the type, development being concentrated on engine- methods, in the form of graphs based on carefully collected and driven superchargers, and, so far as we have been able to ascertain, collated information, that, the whole novelty, and use, of quality very little research or experimental work has been undertaken. It control proper consists. does not appear that any Government researches have been carried out—at any rate, we do not remember any published reports on Two Essential Publications the subject—and if any of the engine firms have done any work they B.S. 600R in conjunction with B.S. 1008 (entitled " Quality have been equally reticent. We have from time to time become Control " with, again, a better sub-title " Guide for Quality Control aware that various experimental superchargers of this class were and Control Chart Method of Analysing Data"), the latter of being tried out in the United. States and there were rumours of there which should be read first, which were summarized on p. 140 of our being, or on the point of being, fitted as standard in certain aero­ May issue, give full information on this extremely important subject planes. It was not, however, until the advent* of the Fortress and should certainly be obtained and studied by anyone concerned bomber that the exhaust-driven supercharger really came into the who is not at this late stage familiar with them. B.S. 1008 is a reprint picture. We communicated some months ago with DR. SANFORD of two American Defence Emergency Standards issu.ed last year, Moss and he was good enough to send us the article now repro­ as a result of an investigation set on foot by the AMERICAN STAND­ duced. We felt, however, that it should be possible to amplify this ARDS ASSOCIATION, at the request of the War Department, in 1940. with further information, and we have therefore been holding it until this was possible. Consequently, we this month publish a series of four articles dealing with various aspects of the subject An Informative Discussion which, whatever their shortcomings, 'constitute as a whole the best The whole subject was thoroughly ventilated and discussed at a available information and, certainly, give a more comprehensive meeting, convened jointly by the Institution of Civil, Mechanical survey than has hitherto appeared anywhere. As has frequently and Electrical Engineers, on Wednesday, April 5, which, we may happened, and been commented on in these columns, we arc indebted perhaps be permitted to mention, was very fully reported in the to German industry for an interesting summary of most of the issues of The Engineer for April 24 and May 1. The importance experiments that have been made in all parts of the world. The that is attached to the matter may be gauged by the fact that, other two articles, one of which deals with the fundamental question though he appeared to speak with a certain caution and reserved of the necessary heat-resistant materials, are both taken from the the right of the Ministry to continue to insist on 100 percent.inspec­ Brown Boveri Review, th e organ of the firm which, with the General tion in at any rate certain cases, a representative of the Ministry of Electric Company of America, has done the most work in this field. Aircraft Production said at this meeting that the Ministry of Air­ http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology Emerald Publishing

STATISTICAL CONTROL OF QUALITY

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology , Volume 14 (7): 1 – Jul 1, 1942

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Publisher
Emerald Publishing
Copyright
Copyright © Emerald Group Publishing Limited
ISSN
0002-2667
DOI
10.1108/eb030919
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Abstract

July, 1942 AIRCRAFT ENGINEERIN G 181 craft Production would accept a properly maintained control chart ; which would seem to put .a factory instituting this method Aircraft Engineering on the footing of being an " approved firm." We understand also that the Ministry of Labour and National Service is arranging, if Devote d t o th e Scienc e an d Practice of Aero ­ it has not already done so, to provide courses in quality control at nautic s and to Allied and Subsidiary certain of its training centres. Whether this service is yet actually in being we do no t know—it has not up to the present been mentioned Branche s of th e Engineerin g Industry in the Ministry's " Engineering Bulletin." Editor: Lieut.-Col. W. Lockwood Marsh, O.B.E.,F.R.Ae.S., M.S.A.E.,F.I.Ae.S. A Matter of Organization There is still some doubt as to the correct position of quality con­ trol in a works' organization. The statistical data used is based on the results of inspection, in that it depends, of course, on the number of rejections. It is, therefore, claimed that it is not a branch of inspection, since inspection merely supplies the basic information E presume that everyone concerned with production in the and it is for the production engineer to interpret the lessons after a aircraft industry or one of its ancillaries—whether as an W study of the charts. On the other hand, it can be argued that it is a aeroplane constructor, sub-contractor or maker of parts or minor tool of production in the sense tha t it is designed to reduce the auxiliary equipment—is by now familiar with what has come to be wastage resulting from the scrapping of defective parts—which known, colloquially, as " Quality control." We publish in this brings it into close touch with salvage. It is not even clear what issue, by courtesy of the SOCIETY OF AUTOMOTIVE ENGINEERS, a is its precise position in the Curtiss-Wright organization. MR. paper read last autumn during the Society's National Aircraft DUN N himself as Quality Director is high up in the hierarchy but, Production Meeting by MR. J. W. DUNN, whose duty it is to direct on the other hand, as we have already pointed out, the actual and co-ordinate quality control and inspection policies of the whole preparation of the charts occupies a very much lower place and the of the Curtiss-Wright group of companies. course of his paper seems to indicate that, in his mind at any rate, it is linked with salvage. Personally, we should have thought that The Question of Nomenclature the production engineer would place it in his immediate personal The original title of the paper was " Airplane Quality Control," staff. and we have retained the phrase in the modified title we have adopted Possibilities of the Method to indicate more clearly its scope. We have, however, done this with some doubts as in fact MR. DUNN deals with the very much There is no doubt that there is considerable opposition to the wider subjects of inspection generally and the organization of whole matter, due largely to inertia perhaps, and that it is easy to salvage—to which he devotes a considerable proportion of his argue that it does not apply to any particular class of engineering space. Indeed, he only appears to mention incidentally, in detailing product. To quote from the Foreword to B.S. 1008, however: the duties of the Quality Supervisor who reports to the Quality " Generally speaking, Quality Control is applicable to any case of Manager a t each plant, " quality control " in the strict sense. The manufacture in which limits must be worked to, and which has as a use of the term in the title is, therefore, rather unfortunate, as it feature large production, continuous flow, or batches of considerable tends towards the loose thinking which is always a danger from the size." From this it can be seen that the potential net is very wide. vague use of technical expressions, it is, for the same reason, per­ haps, a pity that in reprinting B.S. 600 (now 600R) the BRITISH THE EXHAUST-DRIVEN SUPERCHARGER STANDARDS INSTITUTION has entitled it " Quality .Control Charts " We have for some years been seeking information on the design and relegated to a sub-heading the original, much more informative, and construction of exhaust-driven turbo-superchargers without title " The Application of Statistical Methods t o Industrial Standard­ success. In England there has been an almost complete lack of isation and Quality Control"; for it is in the use of statistical interest in the type, development being concentrated on engine- methods, in the form of graphs based on carefully collected and driven superchargers, and, so far as we have been able to ascertain, collated information, that, the whole novelty, and use, of quality very little research or experimental work has been undertaken. It control proper consists. does not appear that any Government researches have been carried out—at any rate, we do not remember any published reports on Two Essential Publications the subject—and if any of the engine firms have done any work they B.S. 600R in conjunction with B.S. 1008 (entitled " Quality have been equally reticent. We have from time to time become Control " with, again, a better sub-title " Guide for Quality Control aware that various experimental superchargers of this class were and Control Chart Method of Analysing Data"), the latter of being tried out in the United. States and there were rumours of there which should be read first, which were summarized on p. 140 of our being, or on the point of being, fitted as standard in certain aero­ May issue, give full information on this extremely important subject planes. It was not, however, until the advent* of the Fortress and should certainly be obtained and studied by anyone concerned bomber that the exhaust-driven supercharger really came into the who is not at this late stage familiar with them. B.S. 1008 is a reprint picture. We communicated some months ago with DR. SANFORD of two American Defence Emergency Standards issu.ed last year, Moss and he was good enough to send us the article now repro­ as a result of an investigation set on foot by the AMERICAN STAND­ duced. We felt, however, that it should be possible to amplify this ARDS ASSOCIATION, at the request of the War Department, in 1940. with further information, and we have therefore been holding it until this was possible. Consequently, we this month publish a series of four articles dealing with various aspects of the subject An Informative Discussion which, whatever their shortcomings, 'constitute as a whole the best The whole subject was thoroughly ventilated and discussed at a available information and, certainly, give a more comprehensive meeting, convened jointly by the Institution of Civil, Mechanical survey than has hitherto appeared anywhere. As has frequently and Electrical Engineers, on Wednesday, April 5, which, we may happened, and been commented on in these columns, we arc indebted perhaps be permitted to mention, was very fully reported in the to German industry for an interesting summary of most of the issues of The Engineer for April 24 and May 1. The importance experiments that have been made in all parts of the world. The that is attached to the matter may be gauged by the fact that, other two articles, one of which deals with the fundamental question though he appeared to speak with a certain caution and reserved of the necessary heat-resistant materials, are both taken from the the right of the Ministry to continue to insist on 100 percent.inspec­ Brown Boveri Review, th e organ of the firm which, with the General tion in at any rate certain cases, a representative of the Ministry of Electric Company of America, has done the most work in this field. Aircraft Production said at this meeting that the Ministry of Air­

Journal

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace TechnologyEmerald Publishing

Published: Jul 1, 1942

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