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Research Reports and Memoranda

Research Reports and Memoranda (Thermodynamic and physical properties of air in dissociation equilibrium.) H. J. Kaeppeler and Research Reports and Memoranda H. G. L. Krause. November 1954. Published values for the thermodynamic properties and compositions of air are critically discussed. It is Under this heading are published regularly abstracts of all Reports and Memoranda of the Aeronautical concluded that those of Krieger and White (Rand Corporation report R-149, 1949) are the most reliable Research Council, Reports and Technical Memoranda of the United States National Advisory Com­ and they have been used to work out 'quasi degree of freedom', the viscosity, thermal conductivity, and mittee for Aeronautics and publications of other similar Research Bodies as issued. Prandtl number for air up to 8,000 deg. K., making full allowance for dissociation and formation of NO, etc. The probable errors in the figures obtained are critically discussed. 2. Uber die Wirtschaftlichkeit von Wasserdampf- AUSTRALIA FRANCE raketen als Horizontal Starthilfen. (Economics of AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH COMMITTEE PUBLICATIONS SCIENTIFIQUES ET assisted take-off by steam rockets.) H. H. Kolle. Box 4331, G.P.O., Melbourne TECHNIQUES DU MINISTÈRE DE L'AIR March 1955. Magasin C.T.O., 2, Avenue de la Porte d 'Issy, A comparison of performances and all-up weights REPORTS Paris, 15e of ATO rockets working on solid fuel, methyl alcohol/ ACA-55. Turbulent Boundary Layer Control by liquid oxygen, methyl alcohol/oxygen/steam, and RAPPORTS Ramps or Wedges. By A. V. Stephens and G. A. steam at 100, 75, and 50 atm. pressure, indicates the 302. Nouveaux compléments d'hydraulique. (New Collins. May 1955. steam rocket to be vastly more economic than any studies on hydraulics.) By Prof. L. Escande. (2,400 other, and also much more operationally reliable and Part I describes preliminary experiments of a new francs.) safe. It would require a greater outlay on ground device for the delay or elimination of turbulent separa­ This contains a summary of the work done during equipment, however. Possible applications of these tion. The device is essentially a means of redistributing the last two years, dealing with the control of hydrau­ rockets are discussed. the total pressure in a boundary layer by means of lic forces, the effect of eliminating the boundary layer wedge-shaped excrescences on the surface. The ex­ on the functioning of large hydraulic undertakings, periments, which were done on the floor of the open 3. Die Wege des Strahlfluges. (The development spillway dams with aspirating slits, tapping-off of return wind tunnel at Cambridge during the latter of flight by reaction propulsion.) E. Sanger. June water through a grating, etc. Various experiments on part of 1950, seemed to establish that the device did similitude in transient flow conditions in a large in­ materially increase the total pressure close to the A lecture, giving a brief review of the possibilities dustrial hydraulic undertaking with a free surface are surface. of the various forms of jet and rocket propulsion, in­ described, the performance of devices for aeration of Part II deals with the continuation of these experi­ dividually and in combination, in which is included conduits, the effect of feeding the wake on the drag ments in the 7 ft. × 5 ft. wind tunnel at Sydney Univer­ some indications of the future programme of the pebble bed, etc. sity. The operation of boundary layer wedges for con­ Research Institute for Physics of Reaction Propulsion trolling turbulent separation was investigated in an at Stuttgart, of which Dr E. Sanger and his wife are 303. Mouvement oscillatoire avee viscosité et adverse pressure gradient on the upper surface of a the Directors. inertie. (Oscillatory motion with allowance for vis­ wing. A new type of wedge in the form of a flat ramp cosity and inertia.) By C. Clarion. (1,000 francs.) was developed.. These were applied to various wings and flaps with significant improvements in the lift The decremental period of oscillations of a liquid GREAT BRITAIN characteristics. Unfortunately, in most of the applica­ in a U tube, and the profile of the displacements (i.e. tions tried, the increment in drag due to the wedges or displacements of elements of liquid below its free sur­ AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL ramps themselves almost cancelled out the reduction face during oscillation) have been studied, the latter in drag brought about by the delay of turbulent by a new method, called the 'surface of separation' REPORTS AND MEMORANDA separation from the flap or wing. This conclusion method, involving photography of the motion of the H.M. Stationery Office, London was confirmed for one application in a simple flight surface of separation between the liquid in question experiment. R. & M. 2873. The Effect of Tight Clamping on the and a small quantity of additional liquid, having as Fatigue Strength of Joints. By W. A. P. Fisher and nearly as possible the same density, viscosity, and sur­ W. J. Winkworth. February, 1952. (3S.) face tension. This new method has been applied to the study of the transient state before establishment of a The effect of clamping on the fatigue strength of CANADA stationary state of flow in a liquid in a small-diamctcr joints in aluminium alloy is investigated experiment­ NATIONAL AERONAUTICAL ESTABLISHMENT cylindrical tube. Calculations based on Navier equa­ ally. Tests on Z-section stringers connected to long, Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario tions agree excellently with the experimental results, slotted cleats give an endurance for tightly clamped generalize the expression for damping factor, and joints about nine times that for unclamped joints. QUARTERLY BULLETIN confirm the validity of Valenski's number. Tests of bolted joints in aluminium alloy sheet mate­ N.A.E. 1955 (3), July 1 to September 30, 1955. rial show still greater improvement for very tight clamping. In both series of tests, the clamping tends to OFFICE NATIONAL D'ÉTUDES ET DE The feature article, contributed by the Aircraft and cancel the weakness in fatigue of a loaded hole. RECHERCHES AÉRONAUTIQUES Allied Instrument Laboratory, is 'Human and Auto­ matic Elements in Modern Measurement and Control 29 Avenue de la Division Leclerc, Chatillon-sous- Tight clamping is considered to have many applica­ Bagneux, Seine Engineering', by J. A. Tanner and C. A. M. Smith. tions in design of aircraft joints from the standpoint of fatigue strength. NOTES TECHNIQUES LR-135. Progress in Development of a Rig for 25. Propriétés calculées d'ailcs en delta échancré ou Testing Variable Area Exhaust Nozzles for Turbojet U.S.A. non. (Calculated properties of delta wings with or Engines Fitted with Afterburners. By R. J . T. Bruce without slots.) By L. Malavard, R. Duquenne, M. and J. C. Vrana. May 1955. NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR Enselme and C. Grandjean. A test rig, consisting of a preheat combustion cham­ AERONAUTICS A study, by means of rheo-electrical models, of the ber and a Derwent N.A.E. type afterburner, has been TECHNICAL REPORTS effect of sweep-back, slotting, and slenderness on the developed for testing variable area exhaust nozzles. Air is supplied by a centrifugal compressor set. The incidence effect on thirty delta-type wings, simple or Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. air mass flow available is about 50 Ib./sec., and in derived. Overall coefficients of lift and centres of order to test at the correct pressure ratios a nozzle pressure, and the distribution of air flow and pressure (Foreign Annual Subscription Rale: 11.25 dollars) that was designed for use on an engine having a for each form are given. Certain special problems are larger mass flow, a water-cooled plug has been used dealt with also: rounding of ends of wings, singu­ 1194. A Study of Hypersonic Small-disturbance to reduce the nozzle exit area. larities near the apices, and profile of the current lines. Theory. By M. D. Van Dyke. 1954. A test was conducted on a variable area nozzle that was designed in the Engineering Section of the N.A.E. PUBLICATIONS The small-disturbance equations are derived for inviscid flow past thin bodies at high supersonic 77. Aerodynamic Heating versus Speed. Thermo­ speeds. Reinterpreted, they apply throughout the dynamic Aspects of the Struggle. By M . Roy. (Report REPORTS supersonic range. The theory is used to find pressures presented to the General Assembly of Agard at Ottawa, FLIGHT RESEARCH SECTION on cones and wedges, initial gradients on ogives, and 1955.) initial pressure curvatures on ogives of revolution. LR-l00a. The Non-Existence of Steady Acoustic This report, in French and English, is a review of Additional approximations from existing theories are Lag in Airborne Pressure Measuring Systems. By the problem and of some of the suggested methods of discussed. B. G. Newman. July 1955. combating it, concerned only with manned aircraft This short report is a corrigendum to Reference I. at altitudes below 25 km. (15½ miles). 1196. An Analytical Study of the Effect of Airplane It is established experimentally that the so-called Wake on the Lateral Dispersion of Aerial Sprays. By acoustic lag in the tubing of pressure measuring sys­ W. H. Reed. 1954. tems is non-existent for the simple case when the time WEST GERMANY rate of change of pressure is approximately constant. An analysis is made to determine the trajectories FORSCHUNGSINSTITUT FÜR PHYSIK DER This conclusion is supported by a theoretical analysis. and deposit of aerial spray droplets which are issued STRAHLANTRIEBE E. V., STUTTGART In the formulae for lag, presented in Reference 1, into the air disturbances generated by an agricultural MITTEILUNGEN all terms involving the speed of sound in tubing, a', aeroplane. Various nozzle arrangements and droplet- should, therefore, be neglected. The empirical law for I. Thermodynamische Zustandsgrössen und size spectra are considered with a view to improving viscous lag (Ref. 1) gives the total lag of the system. Sloffwcrte für Luft bei Dissoziationsgleichgewicht. the uniformity and effective width of the deposit. 32 Aircraft Engineering http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology Emerald Publishing

Research Reports and Memoranda

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology , Volume 28 (1): 1 – Jan 1, 1956

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Publisher
Emerald Publishing
Copyright
Copyright © Emerald Group Publishing Limited
ISSN
0002-2667
DOI
10.1108/eb032654
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Abstract

(Thermodynamic and physical properties of air in dissociation equilibrium.) H. J. Kaeppeler and Research Reports and Memoranda H. G. L. Krause. November 1954. Published values for the thermodynamic properties and compositions of air are critically discussed. It is Under this heading are published regularly abstracts of all Reports and Memoranda of the Aeronautical concluded that those of Krieger and White (Rand Corporation report R-149, 1949) are the most reliable Research Council, Reports and Technical Memoranda of the United States National Advisory Com­ and they have been used to work out 'quasi degree of freedom', the viscosity, thermal conductivity, and mittee for Aeronautics and publications of other similar Research Bodies as issued. Prandtl number for air up to 8,000 deg. K., making full allowance for dissociation and formation of NO, etc. The probable errors in the figures obtained are critically discussed. 2. Uber die Wirtschaftlichkeit von Wasserdampf- AUSTRALIA FRANCE raketen als Horizontal Starthilfen. (Economics of AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH COMMITTEE PUBLICATIONS SCIENTIFIQUES ET assisted take-off by steam rockets.) H. H. Kolle. Box 4331, G.P.O., Melbourne TECHNIQUES DU MINISTÈRE DE L'AIR March 1955. Magasin C.T.O., 2, Avenue de la Porte d 'Issy, A comparison of performances and all-up weights REPORTS Paris, 15e of ATO rockets working on solid fuel, methyl alcohol/ ACA-55. Turbulent Boundary Layer Control by liquid oxygen, methyl alcohol/oxygen/steam, and RAPPORTS Ramps or Wedges. By A. V. Stephens and G. A. steam at 100, 75, and 50 atm. pressure, indicates the 302. Nouveaux compléments d'hydraulique. (New Collins. May 1955. steam rocket to be vastly more economic than any studies on hydraulics.) By Prof. L. Escande. (2,400 other, and also much more operationally reliable and Part I describes preliminary experiments of a new francs.) safe. It would require a greater outlay on ground device for the delay or elimination of turbulent separa­ This contains a summary of the work done during equipment, however. Possible applications of these tion. The device is essentially a means of redistributing the last two years, dealing with the control of hydrau­ rockets are discussed. the total pressure in a boundary layer by means of lic forces, the effect of eliminating the boundary layer wedge-shaped excrescences on the surface. The ex­ on the functioning of large hydraulic undertakings, periments, which were done on the floor of the open 3. Die Wege des Strahlfluges. (The development spillway dams with aspirating slits, tapping-off of return wind tunnel at Cambridge during the latter of flight by reaction propulsion.) E. Sanger. June water through a grating, etc. Various experiments on part of 1950, seemed to establish that the device did similitude in transient flow conditions in a large in­ materially increase the total pressure close to the A lecture, giving a brief review of the possibilities dustrial hydraulic undertaking with a free surface are surface. of the various forms of jet and rocket propulsion, in­ described, the performance of devices for aeration of Part II deals with the continuation of these experi­ dividually and in combination, in which is included conduits, the effect of feeding the wake on the drag ments in the 7 ft. × 5 ft. wind tunnel at Sydney Univer­ some indications of the future programme of the pebble bed, etc. sity. The operation of boundary layer wedges for con­ Research Institute for Physics of Reaction Propulsion trolling turbulent separation was investigated in an at Stuttgart, of which Dr E. Sanger and his wife are 303. Mouvement oscillatoire avee viscosité et adverse pressure gradient on the upper surface of a the Directors. inertie. (Oscillatory motion with allowance for vis­ wing. A new type of wedge in the form of a flat ramp cosity and inertia.) By C. Clarion. (1,000 francs.) was developed.. These were applied to various wings and flaps with significant improvements in the lift The decremental period of oscillations of a liquid GREAT BRITAIN characteristics. Unfortunately, in most of the applica­ in a U tube, and the profile of the displacements (i.e. tions tried, the increment in drag due to the wedges or displacements of elements of liquid below its free sur­ AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH COUNCIL ramps themselves almost cancelled out the reduction face during oscillation) have been studied, the latter in drag brought about by the delay of turbulent by a new method, called the 'surface of separation' REPORTS AND MEMORANDA separation from the flap or wing. This conclusion method, involving photography of the motion of the H.M. Stationery Office, London was confirmed for one application in a simple flight surface of separation between the liquid in question experiment. R. & M. 2873. The Effect of Tight Clamping on the and a small quantity of additional liquid, having as Fatigue Strength of Joints. By W. A. P. Fisher and nearly as possible the same density, viscosity, and sur­ W. J. Winkworth. February, 1952. (3S.) face tension. This new method has been applied to the study of the transient state before establishment of a The effect of clamping on the fatigue strength of CANADA stationary state of flow in a liquid in a small-diamctcr joints in aluminium alloy is investigated experiment­ NATIONAL AERONAUTICAL ESTABLISHMENT cylindrical tube. Calculations based on Navier equa­ ally. Tests on Z-section stringers connected to long, Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario tions agree excellently with the experimental results, slotted cleats give an endurance for tightly clamped generalize the expression for damping factor, and joints about nine times that for unclamped joints. QUARTERLY BULLETIN confirm the validity of Valenski's number. Tests of bolted joints in aluminium alloy sheet mate­ N.A.E. 1955 (3), July 1 to September 30, 1955. rial show still greater improvement for very tight clamping. In both series of tests, the clamping tends to OFFICE NATIONAL D'ÉTUDES ET DE The feature article, contributed by the Aircraft and cancel the weakness in fatigue of a loaded hole. RECHERCHES AÉRONAUTIQUES Allied Instrument Laboratory, is 'Human and Auto­ matic Elements in Modern Measurement and Control 29 Avenue de la Division Leclerc, Chatillon-sous- Tight clamping is considered to have many applica­ Bagneux, Seine Engineering', by J. A. Tanner and C. A. M. Smith. tions in design of aircraft joints from the standpoint of fatigue strength. NOTES TECHNIQUES LR-135. Progress in Development of a Rig for 25. Propriétés calculées d'ailcs en delta échancré ou Testing Variable Area Exhaust Nozzles for Turbojet U.S.A. non. (Calculated properties of delta wings with or Engines Fitted with Afterburners. By R. J . T. Bruce without slots.) By L. Malavard, R. Duquenne, M. and J. C. Vrana. May 1955. NATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR Enselme and C. Grandjean. A test rig, consisting of a preheat combustion cham­ AERONAUTICS A study, by means of rheo-electrical models, of the ber and a Derwent N.A.E. type afterburner, has been TECHNICAL REPORTS effect of sweep-back, slotting, and slenderness on the developed for testing variable area exhaust nozzles. Air is supplied by a centrifugal compressor set. The incidence effect on thirty delta-type wings, simple or Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. air mass flow available is about 50 Ib./sec., and in derived. Overall coefficients of lift and centres of order to test at the correct pressure ratios a nozzle pressure, and the distribution of air flow and pressure (Foreign Annual Subscription Rale: 11.25 dollars) that was designed for use on an engine having a for each form are given. Certain special problems are larger mass flow, a water-cooled plug has been used dealt with also: rounding of ends of wings, singu­ 1194. A Study of Hypersonic Small-disturbance to reduce the nozzle exit area. larities near the apices, and profile of the current lines. Theory. By M. D. Van Dyke. 1954. A test was conducted on a variable area nozzle that was designed in the Engineering Section of the N.A.E. PUBLICATIONS The small-disturbance equations are derived for inviscid flow past thin bodies at high supersonic 77. Aerodynamic Heating versus Speed. Thermo­ speeds. Reinterpreted, they apply throughout the dynamic Aspects of the Struggle. By M . Roy. (Report REPORTS supersonic range. The theory is used to find pressures presented to the General Assembly of Agard at Ottawa, FLIGHT RESEARCH SECTION on cones and wedges, initial gradients on ogives, and 1955.) initial pressure curvatures on ogives of revolution. LR-l00a. The Non-Existence of Steady Acoustic This report, in French and English, is a review of Additional approximations from existing theories are Lag in Airborne Pressure Measuring Systems. By the problem and of some of the suggested methods of discussed. B. G. Newman. July 1955. combating it, concerned only with manned aircraft This short report is a corrigendum to Reference I. at altitudes below 25 km. (15½ miles). 1196. An Analytical Study of the Effect of Airplane It is established experimentally that the so-called Wake on the Lateral Dispersion of Aerial Sprays. By acoustic lag in the tubing of pressure measuring sys­ W. H. Reed. 1954. tems is non-existent for the simple case when the time WEST GERMANY rate of change of pressure is approximately constant. An analysis is made to determine the trajectories FORSCHUNGSINSTITUT FÜR PHYSIK DER This conclusion is supported by a theoretical analysis. and deposit of aerial spray droplets which are issued STRAHLANTRIEBE E. V., STUTTGART In the formulae for lag, presented in Reference 1, into the air disturbances generated by an agricultural MITTEILUNGEN all terms involving the speed of sound in tubing, a', aeroplane. Various nozzle arrangements and droplet- should, therefore, be neglected. The empirical law for I. Thermodynamische Zustandsgrössen und size spectra are considered with a view to improving viscous lag (Ref. 1) gives the total lag of the system. Sloffwcrte für Luft bei Dissoziationsgleichgewicht. the uniformity and effective width of the deposit. 32 Aircraft Engineering

Journal

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace TechnologyEmerald Publishing

Published: Jan 1, 1956

There are no references for this article.