Research Reports and Memoranda

Research Reports and Memoranda LR-390. An Investigation of the Effects of Lateral- Directional Control Cross-Coupling on Flying Qualities using a V/STOL Airborne Simulator. By D. M. McGregor. December 1963. Since many V/STOL aircraft being proposed, or Under this heading are published regularly abstracts of all Reports and Memoranda of the Aeronautical under development, have potentially serious lateral- Research Council, Technical Reports and Translations of the United States National Aeronautics and directional control cross-coupling effects, a handling qualities investigation was undertaken to determine Space Administration and publications of other similar Research Bodies as issued. the variation of pilots' opinion with these parameters. A visual flight task which included hovering, AUSTRALIA assumed that, in the temperature range considered, the accelerating and decelerating transitions, and steep internal electronic excitation was always at its ground AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH LABORATORIES angle approaches was used to give the pilots a realistic state and atoms, ions and electrons had the same function to perform while assessing the various Department of Supply, Box 4331, G.P.O., Melbourne translational temperature. The overall flow pattern configurations. REPORTS obtained was found to be qualitatively similar to that The results indicate quite a small area on the con­ of dissociating oxygen. However, an important excep­ ACA-63. Application of the Logarithmic Electro­ trol cross-coupling graph over which the pilots' ratings tion was the non-existence of a de-excitation shock lytic Tank to Servomechanism Design. By T. J. were in the 'Normal Operation' region, but a very wave, which was verified even up to large wall angles Struys. October 1962. large region for 'Emergency Operation'. A preference and even when using a small size of characteristic was indicated in both these regions for negative roll A logarithmic electrolytic tank is described which mesh. Quisi-similarities of the variations of the flow due to the pilots' yaw command input and the shape does not require evaluation of constants. The method quantities along the wave head and along the wall of the emergency operation region showed that the used is particularly convenient for obtaining the phase surface also were found to exist, when their appropri­ pilots were more readily able to cope with favourable angle loci required in the design of certain types of ately normalized values were plotted as functions of yaw due to roll input. servomechanisms. Application of the tank to solving relevant distances. polynomial equations with complex coefficients is LR-391. An Application of Cooke's Method to the discussed. Laminar Incompressible Boundary Layer on a .Right NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF CANADA Circular Cone at Incidence. By R. S. Crabbe. Decem­ National Research Laboratories, Ottawa ACA-64. The Probability Distribution of Linear ber 1963. Cumulative Damage in Fatigue. By D. G. Ford and AERONAUTICAL REPORTS Cooke's method has been applied to the laminar G. C. Lacey. November 1962. incompressible boundary layer on a slender right circu­ LR-373A. The Effect of Thrust Variation with For­ The common measure of cumulative damage lar cone at small incidence. Streamline co-ordinates ward Speed on the STOL Performance of an Over­ £(nJN) is actually a random variable. This is not have been used with the external velocity components loaded Tilt-Wing VTOL Aircraft. By B. Neal. July emphasized in normal life calculations which produce taken from small perturbation theory. This flow field small errors in mean life (apart from the crude integra­ is conical and irrotational, a fact which simplifies the This report is issued as an addendum to LR-373 tion rule often used) and which give no information boundary layer momentum integral equations. (Rcf. 1). It appears that the take-off manoeuvre is concerning scatter. The calculations have been applied to the surface more dependent on the thrust variation with forward Moments of the distribution of linear damage have shear stress direction and primary separation line posi­ speed than the landing manoeuvre. The take-off to and been found for a general load spectrum and an S-N tion on two cones for which experimental results are landing from a 50-ft. obstacle may be achieved in curve with scatter given by a general log-normal dis­ available. Agreement is good for the surface shear approximately 500 ft. at an all-up-weight between 40 tribution. The life distribution under the Miner direction up to a relative incidence a/O =l '3, while and 50 per cent greater than the VTO all-up-weight hypothesis is then obtainable graphically from a the separation line position is adequately predicted up depending on the thrust variation assumed. Pearson curve of damage density. The results arc to a/0,.=l-8. At higher incidences use of the pre­ easily extended to Freudenthal's damage ZXfiMijN) and viously measured pressure distribution on these cones LR-385. A Water Tunnel Investigation of the Flow for both types it is shown that the correlation struc­ in the boundary layer calculations yields good agree­ Separation about Circular Cones at Incidence. By ture of the S-N data with respect to different load ment for the separation line position up to a relative W. J. Rainbird, R. S. Crabbe and L. S. Jurewicz. levels largely determines the variance of damage and incidence of 3'0. September 1963. life. LR-392. Dynamic Analysis of a Non-Rolling Ballis­ When applied to aircraft fatigue the damage results Flow visualization measurements have been made tic Missile Rapidly Ascending through the Atmosphere. on two right circular cones of semi-apex angles 1\ and extend those of Eggwcrtz. By L. H. Ohman. January 1964. 121 deg. at incidences up to about 40 deg. During all tests the flow within the boundary layers separated An analysis of the dynamic behaviour of a ballistic CANADA vortex sheets and vortex cores was laminar. Details of non-rolling missile rapidly ascending through the the flow have been elucidated and comparisons made INSTITUTE OF AEROPHYSICS atmosphere has been performed. Both the boosting with some previously unpublished wind tunnel experi­ and coasting phase have been considered in plane University of Toronto ments. The angular positions of all separation and motion. It has been shown that the three original REPORTS attachment lines, and the directions of the 'surface' governing equations under certain, yet realistic, condi­ 94. An Experimental Investigation of the Flow In streamlines between such lines, have been measured tions can be reduced to a single second order differen­ and Behind Two-Dimensional Jet Sheets Bounding a and compared with theory using Cooke's method. tial equation in angle of incidence describing the Cavity. By K. Sridhar. August 1963. The position, size and strength of the primary, dynamics of the missile. An explicit solution to this secondary and tertiary vortices formed from the separ­ equation, which has varying coefficients, is available. Experiments with the U.T.I.A. test facility for two- ated boundary layers, and the distribution of stream­ Criteria giving conditions for divergence, damped dimensional jet sheets bounding a cavity were carried line helix angle within the viscous core of the primary oscillations and tumbling have been derived. out for six different configurations of nozzle height vortex, have been measured. and lateral position (cavity depth) and at four A numerical method for solving the complete different pressure ratios. The test programme con­ equations has been developed. A comparison of the sisted of probing the jet sheets and cavities at various explicit and the numerical solution for a particular LR-387. A Study of Electrostatic Charge Genera­ stations. A main finding of this work is that the experi­ case was made and showed good agreement. tion during Low Temperature Refuelling of Aircraft. mental flow, in a number of respects, is not in con­ By C. Bruinzeel, C. Luttik, S. J. Vellenga and L. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING REPORTS formity with the usual theoretical models. The velocity Gardner. October 1963. profiles at different horizontal stations along the The electrical effects occurring during low tempera­ MS-109. On the Classification of Families of Shapes 'curved' jet sheets were found to be similar provided ture fuelling operations have been investigated using for Rods of Axially Varying Cross-Section in Longi­ the stations considered were not too close to the standard R.C.A.F. equipment and aircraft. High field tudinal Vibration. By H. F. L. Pinkney and G. Basso. nozzle exit. The experimental results also indicated October 1963. strengths were measured, and discharges observed, dur­ the flow in the cavity to be highly rotational and that ing certain phases of the programme at normal fuelling The derivation and classification of families of in the region not too close to the boundaries, the rates. It was found that, compared with previous data shapes for rods of axially varying cross-section in vorticity may be approximated as uniform. Further, obtained at higher temperatures, strong charging per­ longitudinal vibration is considered. Two existing the total circulation about a specified circuit in the sisted to a higher level of fuel rest-conductivity. This transformations are used in the analysis. The first cavity was found to vary linearly with the theoretical was mainly due to the fact that the fuel conductivity transformation gives the equation of motion in the jet Mach number, the slopes of the lines changing with remained at a low level for a considerable period of form of a one-dimensional Schrocdinger equation the configuration. time after transfer through the equipment. The where the potential function prescribes a second order effectiveness oi a static dissipating additive in elimin­ differential equation governing the shape. Shapes pre­ ating the hazard due to static charges generated in a 95. Non-equilibrium Expansion Flow of Ionized viously treated in the literature are shown to be fuel was also demonstrated. Argon Around a Corner. By I. Glass and A. Takano. particular members of certain families of shapes, and August 1963. in addition, general solutions for new shapes are de­ LR-388. Turbine Waves for VTOL Turbofans: Pre­ rived. A detailed study is presented of non-equilibrium, liminary Results with an Experimental Tip Turbine inviscid expansion flows of ionized argon around a MD-48. A Low Temperature Centrifugal Com­ Drive. By G. G. Levy, E. P. Cockshutt, G. Faucher corner. The calculating procedure is based on the pressor Test Rig. By C. K. Rush. November 1963. and T. E. Guthrie. November 1963. method of characteristics and is similar to that for dissociating oxygen in a separate U.T.I.A. report, A 36-in. diameter tip turbine driven VTOL fan in­ An examination of the requirements for dynamic corporating a free-floating turbine blade carrier is which has already been published. The numerical similarity in centrifugal compressors demonstrates described. The blade carrier remained eccentric over computations were performed on an IBM-7090 com­ the possible advantages of using air at temperatures the speed range covered and limited the maximum puter for a number of cases with different free-stream down to 100 deg. Kelvin. A test rig capable of operat­ conditions and wall angles. These cases will be tested rotational speed to 79 per cent of that desired. Turbine ing at low temperatures is described. Test results for experimentally in the U.T.I.A. 4 in. x 7 in. hypersonic and fan performances are presented and the results of inlet conditions, ranging from room temperature to shock tube in order to measure recombination rate a comparison between the latter and a 12-in. diameter 125 deg. Kelvin arc presented. The predicted advan­ constants and other properties of the flow. It was model arc discussed. tages of operating at low temperature are confirmed 168 A ircraft Engineering http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology Emerald Publishing

Research Reports and Memoranda

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Volume 37 (5): 1 – May 1, 1965

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Publisher
Emerald Publishing
Copyright
Copyright © Emerald Group Publishing Limited
ISSN
0002-2667
DOI
10.1108/eb034024
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Abstract

LR-390. An Investigation of the Effects of Lateral- Directional Control Cross-Coupling on Flying Qualities using a V/STOL Airborne Simulator. By D. M. McGregor. December 1963. Since many V/STOL aircraft being proposed, or Under this heading are published regularly abstracts of all Reports and Memoranda of the Aeronautical under development, have potentially serious lateral- Research Council, Technical Reports and Translations of the United States National Aeronautics and directional control cross-coupling effects, a handling qualities investigation was undertaken to determine Space Administration and publications of other similar Research Bodies as issued. the variation of pilots' opinion with these parameters. A visual flight task which included hovering, AUSTRALIA assumed that, in the temperature range considered, the accelerating and decelerating transitions, and steep internal electronic excitation was always at its ground AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH LABORATORIES angle approaches was used to give the pilots a realistic state and atoms, ions and electrons had the same function to perform while assessing the various Department of Supply, Box 4331, G.P.O., Melbourne translational temperature. The overall flow pattern configurations. REPORTS obtained was found to be qualitatively similar to that The results indicate quite a small area on the con­ of dissociating oxygen. However, an important excep­ ACA-63. Application of the Logarithmic Electro­ trol cross-coupling graph over which the pilots' ratings tion was the non-existence of a de-excitation shock lytic Tank to Servomechanism Design. By T. J. were in the 'Normal Operation' region, but a very wave, which was verified even up to large wall angles Struys. October 1962. large region for 'Emergency Operation'. A preference and even when using a small size of characteristic was indicated in both these regions for negative roll A logarithmic electrolytic tank is described which mesh. Quisi-similarities of the variations of the flow due to the pilots' yaw command input and the shape does not require evaluation of constants. The method quantities along the wave head and along the wall of the emergency operation region showed that the used is particularly convenient for obtaining the phase surface also were found to exist, when their appropri­ pilots were more readily able to cope with favourable angle loci required in the design of certain types of ately normalized values were plotted as functions of yaw due to roll input. servomechanisms. Application of the tank to solving relevant distances. polynomial equations with complex coefficients is LR-391. An Application of Cooke's Method to the discussed. Laminar Incompressible Boundary Layer on a .Right NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL OF CANADA Circular Cone at Incidence. By R. S. Crabbe. Decem­ National Research Laboratories, Ottawa ACA-64. The Probability Distribution of Linear ber 1963. Cumulative Damage in Fatigue. By D. G. Ford and AERONAUTICAL REPORTS Cooke's method has been applied to the laminar G. C. Lacey. November 1962. incompressible boundary layer on a slender right circu­ LR-373A. The Effect of Thrust Variation with For­ The common measure of cumulative damage lar cone at small incidence. Streamline co-ordinates ward Speed on the STOL Performance of an Over­ £(nJN) is actually a random variable. This is not have been used with the external velocity components loaded Tilt-Wing VTOL Aircraft. By B. Neal. July emphasized in normal life calculations which produce taken from small perturbation theory. This flow field small errors in mean life (apart from the crude integra­ is conical and irrotational, a fact which simplifies the This report is issued as an addendum to LR-373 tion rule often used) and which give no information boundary layer momentum integral equations. (Rcf. 1). It appears that the take-off manoeuvre is concerning scatter. The calculations have been applied to the surface more dependent on the thrust variation with forward Moments of the distribution of linear damage have shear stress direction and primary separation line posi­ speed than the landing manoeuvre. The take-off to and been found for a general load spectrum and an S-N tion on two cones for which experimental results are landing from a 50-ft. obstacle may be achieved in curve with scatter given by a general log-normal dis­ available. Agreement is good for the surface shear approximately 500 ft. at an all-up-weight between 40 tribution. The life distribution under the Miner direction up to a relative incidence a/O =l '3, while and 50 per cent greater than the VTO all-up-weight hypothesis is then obtainable graphically from a the separation line position is adequately predicted up depending on the thrust variation assumed. Pearson curve of damage density. The results arc to a/0,.=l-8. At higher incidences use of the pre­ easily extended to Freudenthal's damage ZXfiMijN) and viously measured pressure distribution on these cones LR-385. A Water Tunnel Investigation of the Flow for both types it is shown that the correlation struc­ in the boundary layer calculations yields good agree­ Separation about Circular Cones at Incidence. By ture of the S-N data with respect to different load ment for the separation line position up to a relative W. J. Rainbird, R. S. Crabbe and L. S. Jurewicz. levels largely determines the variance of damage and incidence of 3'0. September 1963. life. LR-392. Dynamic Analysis of a Non-Rolling Ballis­ When applied to aircraft fatigue the damage results Flow visualization measurements have been made tic Missile Rapidly Ascending through the Atmosphere. on two right circular cones of semi-apex angles 1\ and extend those of Eggwcrtz. By L. H. Ohman. January 1964. 121 deg. at incidences up to about 40 deg. During all tests the flow within the boundary layers separated An analysis of the dynamic behaviour of a ballistic CANADA vortex sheets and vortex cores was laminar. Details of non-rolling missile rapidly ascending through the the flow have been elucidated and comparisons made INSTITUTE OF AEROPHYSICS atmosphere has been performed. Both the boosting with some previously unpublished wind tunnel experi­ and coasting phase have been considered in plane University of Toronto ments. The angular positions of all separation and motion. It has been shown that the three original REPORTS attachment lines, and the directions of the 'surface' governing equations under certain, yet realistic, condi­ 94. An Experimental Investigation of the Flow In streamlines between such lines, have been measured tions can be reduced to a single second order differen­ and Behind Two-Dimensional Jet Sheets Bounding a and compared with theory using Cooke's method. tial equation in angle of incidence describing the Cavity. By K. Sridhar. August 1963. The position, size and strength of the primary, dynamics of the missile. An explicit solution to this secondary and tertiary vortices formed from the separ­ equation, which has varying coefficients, is available. Experiments with the U.T.I.A. test facility for two- ated boundary layers, and the distribution of stream­ Criteria giving conditions for divergence, damped dimensional jet sheets bounding a cavity were carried line helix angle within the viscous core of the primary oscillations and tumbling have been derived. out for six different configurations of nozzle height vortex, have been measured. and lateral position (cavity depth) and at four A numerical method for solving the complete different pressure ratios. The test programme con­ equations has been developed. A comparison of the sisted of probing the jet sheets and cavities at various explicit and the numerical solution for a particular LR-387. A Study of Electrostatic Charge Genera­ stations. A main finding of this work is that the experi­ case was made and showed good agreement. tion during Low Temperature Refuelling of Aircraft. mental flow, in a number of respects, is not in con­ By C. Bruinzeel, C. Luttik, S. J. Vellenga and L. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING REPORTS formity with the usual theoretical models. The velocity Gardner. October 1963. profiles at different horizontal stations along the The electrical effects occurring during low tempera­ MS-109. On the Classification of Families of Shapes 'curved' jet sheets were found to be similar provided ture fuelling operations have been investigated using for Rods of Axially Varying Cross-Section in Longi­ the stations considered were not too close to the standard R.C.A.F. equipment and aircraft. High field tudinal Vibration. By H. F. L. Pinkney and G. Basso. nozzle exit. The experimental results also indicated October 1963. strengths were measured, and discharges observed, dur­ the flow in the cavity to be highly rotational and that ing certain phases of the programme at normal fuelling The derivation and classification of families of in the region not too close to the boundaries, the rates. It was found that, compared with previous data shapes for rods of axially varying cross-section in vorticity may be approximated as uniform. Further, obtained at higher temperatures, strong charging per­ longitudinal vibration is considered. Two existing the total circulation about a specified circuit in the sisted to a higher level of fuel rest-conductivity. This transformations are used in the analysis. The first cavity was found to vary linearly with the theoretical was mainly due to the fact that the fuel conductivity transformation gives the equation of motion in the jet Mach number, the slopes of the lines changing with remained at a low level for a considerable period of form of a one-dimensional Schrocdinger equation the configuration. time after transfer through the equipment. The where the potential function prescribes a second order effectiveness oi a static dissipating additive in elimin­ differential equation governing the shape. Shapes pre­ ating the hazard due to static charges generated in a 95. Non-equilibrium Expansion Flow of Ionized viously treated in the literature are shown to be fuel was also demonstrated. Argon Around a Corner. By I. Glass and A. Takano. particular members of certain families of shapes, and August 1963. in addition, general solutions for new shapes are de­ LR-388. Turbine Waves for VTOL Turbofans: Pre­ rived. A detailed study is presented of non-equilibrium, liminary Results with an Experimental Tip Turbine inviscid expansion flows of ionized argon around a MD-48. A Low Temperature Centrifugal Com­ Drive. By G. G. Levy, E. P. Cockshutt, G. Faucher corner. The calculating procedure is based on the pressor Test Rig. By C. K. Rush. November 1963. and T. E. Guthrie. November 1963. method of characteristics and is similar to that for dissociating oxygen in a separate U.T.I.A. report, A 36-in. diameter tip turbine driven VTOL fan in­ An examination of the requirements for dynamic corporating a free-floating turbine blade carrier is which has already been published. The numerical similarity in centrifugal compressors demonstrates described. The blade carrier remained eccentric over computations were performed on an IBM-7090 com­ the possible advantages of using air at temperatures the speed range covered and limited the maximum puter for a number of cases with different free-stream down to 100 deg. Kelvin. A test rig capable of operat­ conditions and wall angles. These cases will be tested rotational speed to 79 per cent of that desired. Turbine ing at low temperatures is described. Test results for experimentally in the U.T.I.A. 4 in. x 7 in. hypersonic and fan performances are presented and the results of inlet conditions, ranging from room temperature to shock tube in order to measure recombination rate a comparison between the latter and a 12-in. diameter 125 deg. Kelvin arc presented. The predicted advan­ constants and other properties of the flow. It was model arc discussed. tages of operating at low temperature are confirmed 168 A ircraft Engineering

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Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace TechnologyEmerald Publishing

Published: May 1, 1965

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