Research and Testing

Research and Testing to investigate physical properties of the earth's en­ vironment, specially particle, X-ray and ultra-violet Research and Testing radiation which originates from the sun. Hawker Siddeley Dynamics will have overall re­ sponsibility to E.S.R.O. for co-ordination of the pro­ Equipment, Programmes, Techniques and Projects gramme and integration of the systems engineering. The design and development of the satellite will be carried out jointly by Hawker Siddeley Dynamics and MEASURING BEARING CONTACT ANGLES the hair-lines with the reference line on the brass ring Engins Matra, of France, who arc collaborating on and then reads off the angular position of the drum In many applications for which Hoffman precision international space projects. against the index marker. This reading is then com­ bearings arc utilized, such as gyros and inertial navi­ E.S.R.O. II is scheduled to be launched by an pared with a table of limits, or the actual bearing gation equipment, the bearing contact angle is critical. American four-stage Scout rocket from the West contact angle can be calculated. The bearing contact angle is the angle between a plane Coast of the U.S.A. in the early part of 1967. The While the cage rotates ten times the drum will perpendicular to the bearing axis and a line extending 175 lb. satellite is twelve-sided and approximately usually revolve sixteen times. With extreme-precision through the points of contact of a bearing ball with 30 in. in diameter. Power required to conduct the Hoffmann bearings for applications such as inertial the raceways of the inner and outer rings. Measure­ various experiments stipulated by E.S.R.O., and to navigation, the final angular reading must bo within ment of this angle provides an extremely good check telemeter the results back to earth, comes from nearly ± 1 deg. of the specified value. on the general geometrical accuracy of the various 6,000 solar cells. components in the bearing. It has also been estab­ The E.S.R.O. requirement calls for the production HELICOPTER RESEARCH lished on certain applications that if a bearing is to of four satellites. Two will be prototypes, used for function correctly for a pre-determined operational A new flight simulation laboratory with a com­ component evaluation and static trials, and two will be life, then the contact angle must be within closely de­ prehensive range of equipment, in use with Westland identical flight models, one of which will be launched, fined limits. In the case of gyros it is essential that the Aircraft Ltd., has recently been expanded by the for the study of solar astronomy and cosmic rays. bearings used have the correct contact angle, as speci­ installation of a £100,000 PACE analogue computer— fied in the design, since the isoelastic properties this the second to be ordered by Westland for the Yeovil NEW SMOKE GENERATOR imparts arc of great importance to the performance of laboratory. The contract was placed with the manu­ the instrument. A smoke generator now being manufactured by facturers, Electronic Associates Ltd., Burgess Hill, C. F. Taylor {Electronics) Ltd., Doman Road, Cam- Sussex. berlcy, Surrey, has been developed from the early With this second machine installed, the Westland 'Lede' smoke generator. This latest model 3020 PACE simulator becomes among the largest and most Mark 2 produces dense, clean, white smoke, compris­ powerful in Europe, having a capacity of over 400 ing fine particles of a cosmetic grade of oil in a stream amplifiers. The first PACE computer was delivered of carbon dioxide gas, which is non-irritant, non toxic, to Westland in October, 1963, and, with a capacity of free of fire hazard and docs not contaminate the 120 amplifiers, is currently simulating flight and pro­ environment. Operation of the control switch gives grammed automatic control of an anti-submarine instantaneous commencement and cessation of emis­ helicopter. sion. Rate of output is continuously variable from a The current stage of development is to close the fine wisp to 2,000 cu. ft./min. loop round a complete flight control system with its The smoke may be piped and pressurized and the complement of electronic and hydro-mechanical Mark 2 unit provides the facility for attaching injec­ hardware, and instrumented cockpit mock-up, all of tors and pressurization units directly to the output which have been built by Westland. nozzle of the generator, which makes it possible to The simulator reproduces the full operational inject smoke against a back pressure of over 40 lb./ characteristics of the helicopter as they would be ex­ sq.in. perienced by the pilot, short of actual motion, without It is possible to use the smoke generator quite necessitating the normally prolonged routine of flight simply for every flow visualization requirement and trials. By using the standard general purpose analogue for proving the quality of scaling of enclosed spaces. computer to simulate the motion of the helicopter it is The heat capacity of the smoke generator provides possible to 'freeze' any flight condition. This procedure the maintenance of an adequate temperature for satis­ enables the detailed examination of data relevant to factory generation of smoke up to 30 minutes after To measure contact angles of precision bearings the overall efficiency as affected by individual com­ disconnecting the mains electrical supply. The facility ranging in size from the smallest miniature (1 mm. ponent behaviour. Designers have not been able to do is also available to set the instrument to produce a bore, 3 mm. outside diameter) up to 2½ in. outside this in the past and it is expected that complete limited amount of smoke after operation of the switch diamater, The Hoffmann Manufacturing Co. Ltd., understanding of behaviour over the full spectrum of without returning the switch to the 'off' position. It is, P.O. Box No. 7, Chelmsford, Essex, has designed and flight, including failure conditions, will result. therefore, very convenient to use the 3020 smoke built a special instrument (FIG. 1). It comprises a fixed First priority, however, is the relatively new field of generator for detection of leaks, for example, in central spigot on which the bearing under test is programmed automatic flight control . Certain manoe­ refrigerated cabinets. mounted and a large diameter machined aluminium uvres are involved which arc not easily covered by drum which locates on the outer race of the bearing. flight trials—others are hazardous and more safely A circular transparent plastic scale marked in degrees completed on the simulator. According to a Westland is fitted round the periphery of the drum. A binocular spokesman, 'The simulator should help us to avoid microscope with crossed hair lines for observing following costly and time-wasting lines of wrong reference marks is also provided. thinking. A designer normally relics almost entirely on The effective contact angle of a bearing is assessed the pilot for qualitative information from flight trials. by measuring the difference in angular displacement The simulator provides us with valuable additional that occurs between the outer race and the bearing data because the flight rig is continuously operational cage after the bearing cage has completed a pre­ and can simulate by command any flight condition we determined number of revolutions. arc wanting to study. This is a much more desirable If the inner race of a bearing is held stationary and arrangement.' the outer race is rotated, the bearing balls will also The computer is the new PACE 231 R.-V type which rotate and travel round the bearing tracts carrying the has provision for memory and logic group (MLG) and bearing cage with them. However the cage will revolve all electronic switching for ultra-high-speed operation. at a speed that is less than that of the outer race. And Although there is no immediate intention of using the precise speed at which the cage revolves is deter­ hybrid techniques the computer is wired to accept mined by the bearing contact angle. Hence by observ­ MLG and electronic switching should these have ing the movement of the bearing cage relative to the potential application in other fields of research. outer race the bearing contact angle can be assessed. One of the considerations heavily influencing West- The bearing to be tested is fitted in a housing and land's choice of machine is the fact that although in placed on the fixed spigot of the machine. The housing the first instance the computer is being used exclu­ which locates over the outer race of the bearing is then sively as part of the flight simulator, it can revert to coupled by three index screws to the aluminium drum. general purpose application at a later date following Bearings are always tested while subjected to a pre­ completion of the programme. Alternatively, the scribed axial load—usually of the order of 3 lb. Next a This unique instrument provides the means to carry machine can be re-programmed to simulate a new small brass ring with a radial reference line is placed out scientific and industrial investigations into all types generation of aircraft. on the cage of the bearing. This ring is not in direct of fluid flow problems for a wide variety of industries, The computer as delivered has five expansion racks contact with cither the inner or outer race of the bear­ in addition to meeting the needs of universities and to accommodate its 262 amplifiers. Included in the ing. It only revolves with the cage. training establishments requiring to produce dense contract is a PACE maintenance module intended By rotating a knurled ring at the base of the instru­ smoke which will not harm clothing, equipment or specifically to test operationally individual component personnel. ment the operator then raises the spigot enabling the without taking the main computer 'off the air.' drum to revolve freely. Sighting through the binocular Running costs arc extremely low, being approxim­ microscope the operator aligns the reference line on ately 2d. for carbon dioxide plus Ad. for oil per HAWKER SIDDELEY DYNAMICS CHOSEN TO the brass cage ring with the hairlines. He then moves thousand cubic feet of smoke. BUILD FIRST E.S.R.O. SATELLITE an index marker so that it lines up precisely with the Some examples of its many successful uses in the 0-360 deg. calibration on the circular plastic scale The Space Projects Division of Hawker Siddeley aircraft industry arc airflow visualization in wind attached to the outside of the drum. Dynamics, in collaboration with Engins Matra, has tunnels; aircraft freight hold sealing tests; aircraft fire been selected to develop the first research satellite for Everything is now ready to make a reading. The drills and testing smoke/danger warning, devices E.S.R.O. (European Space Research Organization). operator rotates the drum slowly until the cage has throughout aircraft, and passenger cabin ventilation The satellite, to be known as E.S.R.O. II, is intended tests. completed exactly ten revolutions. He accurately aligns May 1965 163 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology Emerald Publishing

Research and Testing

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Volume 37 (5): 1 – May 1, 1965

Loading next page...
 
/lp/emerald-publishing/research-and-testing-iKkIZDVOq0
Publisher
Emerald Publishing
Copyright
Copyright © Emerald Group Publishing Limited
ISSN
0002-2667
DOI
10.1108/eb034019
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

to investigate physical properties of the earth's en­ vironment, specially particle, X-ray and ultra-violet Research and Testing radiation which originates from the sun. Hawker Siddeley Dynamics will have overall re­ sponsibility to E.S.R.O. for co-ordination of the pro­ Equipment, Programmes, Techniques and Projects gramme and integration of the systems engineering. The design and development of the satellite will be carried out jointly by Hawker Siddeley Dynamics and MEASURING BEARING CONTACT ANGLES the hair-lines with the reference line on the brass ring Engins Matra, of France, who arc collaborating on and then reads off the angular position of the drum In many applications for which Hoffman precision international space projects. against the index marker. This reading is then com­ bearings arc utilized, such as gyros and inertial navi­ E.S.R.O. II is scheduled to be launched by an pared with a table of limits, or the actual bearing gation equipment, the bearing contact angle is critical. American four-stage Scout rocket from the West contact angle can be calculated. The bearing contact angle is the angle between a plane Coast of the U.S.A. in the early part of 1967. The While the cage rotates ten times the drum will perpendicular to the bearing axis and a line extending 175 lb. satellite is twelve-sided and approximately usually revolve sixteen times. With extreme-precision through the points of contact of a bearing ball with 30 in. in diameter. Power required to conduct the Hoffmann bearings for applications such as inertial the raceways of the inner and outer rings. Measure­ various experiments stipulated by E.S.R.O., and to navigation, the final angular reading must bo within ment of this angle provides an extremely good check telemeter the results back to earth, comes from nearly ± 1 deg. of the specified value. on the general geometrical accuracy of the various 6,000 solar cells. components in the bearing. It has also been estab­ The E.S.R.O. requirement calls for the production HELICOPTER RESEARCH lished on certain applications that if a bearing is to of four satellites. Two will be prototypes, used for function correctly for a pre-determined operational A new flight simulation laboratory with a com­ component evaluation and static trials, and two will be life, then the contact angle must be within closely de­ prehensive range of equipment, in use with Westland identical flight models, one of which will be launched, fined limits. In the case of gyros it is essential that the Aircraft Ltd., has recently been expanded by the for the study of solar astronomy and cosmic rays. bearings used have the correct contact angle, as speci­ installation of a £100,000 PACE analogue computer— fied in the design, since the isoelastic properties this the second to be ordered by Westland for the Yeovil NEW SMOKE GENERATOR imparts arc of great importance to the performance of laboratory. The contract was placed with the manu­ the instrument. A smoke generator now being manufactured by facturers, Electronic Associates Ltd., Burgess Hill, C. F. Taylor {Electronics) Ltd., Doman Road, Cam- Sussex. berlcy, Surrey, has been developed from the early With this second machine installed, the Westland 'Lede' smoke generator. This latest model 3020 PACE simulator becomes among the largest and most Mark 2 produces dense, clean, white smoke, compris­ powerful in Europe, having a capacity of over 400 ing fine particles of a cosmetic grade of oil in a stream amplifiers. The first PACE computer was delivered of carbon dioxide gas, which is non-irritant, non toxic, to Westland in October, 1963, and, with a capacity of free of fire hazard and docs not contaminate the 120 amplifiers, is currently simulating flight and pro­ environment. Operation of the control switch gives grammed automatic control of an anti-submarine instantaneous commencement and cessation of emis­ helicopter. sion. Rate of output is continuously variable from a The current stage of development is to close the fine wisp to 2,000 cu. ft./min. loop round a complete flight control system with its The smoke may be piped and pressurized and the complement of electronic and hydro-mechanical Mark 2 unit provides the facility for attaching injec­ hardware, and instrumented cockpit mock-up, all of tors and pressurization units directly to the output which have been built by Westland. nozzle of the generator, which makes it possible to The simulator reproduces the full operational inject smoke against a back pressure of over 40 lb./ characteristics of the helicopter as they would be ex­ sq.in. perienced by the pilot, short of actual motion, without It is possible to use the smoke generator quite necessitating the normally prolonged routine of flight simply for every flow visualization requirement and trials. By using the standard general purpose analogue for proving the quality of scaling of enclosed spaces. computer to simulate the motion of the helicopter it is The heat capacity of the smoke generator provides possible to 'freeze' any flight condition. This procedure the maintenance of an adequate temperature for satis­ enables the detailed examination of data relevant to factory generation of smoke up to 30 minutes after To measure contact angles of precision bearings the overall efficiency as affected by individual com­ disconnecting the mains electrical supply. The facility ranging in size from the smallest miniature (1 mm. ponent behaviour. Designers have not been able to do is also available to set the instrument to produce a bore, 3 mm. outside diameter) up to 2½ in. outside this in the past and it is expected that complete limited amount of smoke after operation of the switch diamater, The Hoffmann Manufacturing Co. Ltd., understanding of behaviour over the full spectrum of without returning the switch to the 'off' position. It is, P.O. Box No. 7, Chelmsford, Essex, has designed and flight, including failure conditions, will result. therefore, very convenient to use the 3020 smoke built a special instrument (FIG. 1). It comprises a fixed First priority, however, is the relatively new field of generator for detection of leaks, for example, in central spigot on which the bearing under test is programmed automatic flight control . Certain manoe­ refrigerated cabinets. mounted and a large diameter machined aluminium uvres are involved which arc not easily covered by drum which locates on the outer race of the bearing. flight trials—others are hazardous and more safely A circular transparent plastic scale marked in degrees completed on the simulator. According to a Westland is fitted round the periphery of the drum. A binocular spokesman, 'The simulator should help us to avoid microscope with crossed hair lines for observing following costly and time-wasting lines of wrong reference marks is also provided. thinking. A designer normally relics almost entirely on The effective contact angle of a bearing is assessed the pilot for qualitative information from flight trials. by measuring the difference in angular displacement The simulator provides us with valuable additional that occurs between the outer race and the bearing data because the flight rig is continuously operational cage after the bearing cage has completed a pre­ and can simulate by command any flight condition we determined number of revolutions. arc wanting to study. This is a much more desirable If the inner race of a bearing is held stationary and arrangement.' the outer race is rotated, the bearing balls will also The computer is the new PACE 231 R.-V type which rotate and travel round the bearing tracts carrying the has provision for memory and logic group (MLG) and bearing cage with them. However the cage will revolve all electronic switching for ultra-high-speed operation. at a speed that is less than that of the outer race. And Although there is no immediate intention of using the precise speed at which the cage revolves is deter­ hybrid techniques the computer is wired to accept mined by the bearing contact angle. Hence by observ­ MLG and electronic switching should these have ing the movement of the bearing cage relative to the potential application in other fields of research. outer race the bearing contact angle can be assessed. One of the considerations heavily influencing West- The bearing to be tested is fitted in a housing and land's choice of machine is the fact that although in placed on the fixed spigot of the machine. The housing the first instance the computer is being used exclu­ which locates over the outer race of the bearing is then sively as part of the flight simulator, it can revert to coupled by three index screws to the aluminium drum. general purpose application at a later date following Bearings are always tested while subjected to a pre­ completion of the programme. Alternatively, the scribed axial load—usually of the order of 3 lb. Next a This unique instrument provides the means to carry machine can be re-programmed to simulate a new small brass ring with a radial reference line is placed out scientific and industrial investigations into all types generation of aircraft. on the cage of the bearing. This ring is not in direct of fluid flow problems for a wide variety of industries, The computer as delivered has five expansion racks contact with cither the inner or outer race of the bear­ in addition to meeting the needs of universities and to accommodate its 262 amplifiers. Included in the ing. It only revolves with the cage. training establishments requiring to produce dense contract is a PACE maintenance module intended By rotating a knurled ring at the base of the instru­ smoke which will not harm clothing, equipment or specifically to test operationally individual component personnel. ment the operator then raises the spigot enabling the without taking the main computer 'off the air.' drum to revolve freely. Sighting through the binocular Running costs arc extremely low, being approxim­ microscope the operator aligns the reference line on ately 2d. for carbon dioxide plus Ad. for oil per HAWKER SIDDELEY DYNAMICS CHOSEN TO the brass cage ring with the hairlines. He then moves thousand cubic feet of smoke. BUILD FIRST E.S.R.O. SATELLITE an index marker so that it lines up precisely with the Some examples of its many successful uses in the 0-360 deg. calibration on the circular plastic scale The Space Projects Division of Hawker Siddeley aircraft industry arc airflow visualization in wind attached to the outside of the drum. Dynamics, in collaboration with Engins Matra, has tunnels; aircraft freight hold sealing tests; aircraft fire been selected to develop the first research satellite for Everything is now ready to make a reading. The drills and testing smoke/danger warning, devices E.S.R.O. (European Space Research Organization). operator rotates the drum slowly until the cage has throughout aircraft, and passenger cabin ventilation The satellite, to be known as E.S.R.O. II, is intended tests. completed exactly ten revolutions. He accurately aligns May 1965 163

Journal

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace TechnologyEmerald Publishing

Published: May 1, 1965

There are no references for this article.

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create folders to
organize your research

Export folders, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off