Police‐citizen encounters and field citations Do encounter characteristics influence ticketing?

Police‐citizen encounters and field citations Do encounter characteristics influence ticketing? Purpose – To provide an empirical analysis of what influences police use of field citations (tickets) against citizens in nontraffic and traffic encounters. Design/methodology/approach – The research was conducted using systematic social observations of police‐citizen encounters in Cincinnati, Ohio, from April 1997 to 1998. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the effects of legal and extralegal factors on the dependant variable (receipt of a citation) versus an officer doing nothing or arresting a citizen in nontraffic and traffic encounters. Findings – Officers appear to be more likely to issue citations, as opposed to doing nothing formal or making an arrest, in traffic encounters. The extant literature's focus on citation issuance being more relevant to police behavior in traffic encounters as opposed to other routine encounters may be appropriate. When the decision rests between issuing a citation or making a full‐custody arrest in traffic encounters, white officers are more likely to arrest than their black counterparts, and black suspects were significantly more likely than Caucasians to be arrested than cited. Race of the officer or the suspect exhibited no significant effect in any of the other models estimated. Research limitations/implications – The study utilized data collected on police‐citizen interactions from one police agency in one jurisdiction, and the data do not come from a study designed primarily to examine citation outcomes or traffic encounters. Practical implications – This study would be useful to researchers examining police use of citations, officer behavior in traffic and nontraffic encounters, quantifying law in police‐citizen encounters, and race‐based policing. Originality/value – This study provides a comprehensive review of the literature, and an empirical analysis, regarding officer decision making as it pertains to the issuing of tickets relative to other police actions (i.e. arrest) in traffic and nontraffic situations. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management Emerald Publishing

Police‐citizen encounters and field citations Do encounter characteristics influence ticketing?

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Publisher
Emerald Publishing
Copyright
Copyright © 2005 Emerald Group Publishing Limited. All rights reserved.
ISSN
1363-951X
DOI
10.1108/13639510510614546
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Purpose – To provide an empirical analysis of what influences police use of field citations (tickets) against citizens in nontraffic and traffic encounters. Design/methodology/approach – The research was conducted using systematic social observations of police‐citizen encounters in Cincinnati, Ohio, from April 1997 to 1998. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine the effects of legal and extralegal factors on the dependant variable (receipt of a citation) versus an officer doing nothing or arresting a citizen in nontraffic and traffic encounters. Findings – Officers appear to be more likely to issue citations, as opposed to doing nothing formal or making an arrest, in traffic encounters. The extant literature's focus on citation issuance being more relevant to police behavior in traffic encounters as opposed to other routine encounters may be appropriate. When the decision rests between issuing a citation or making a full‐custody arrest in traffic encounters, white officers are more likely to arrest than their black counterparts, and black suspects were significantly more likely than Caucasians to be arrested than cited. Race of the officer or the suspect exhibited no significant effect in any of the other models estimated. Research limitations/implications – The study utilized data collected on police‐citizen interactions from one police agency in one jurisdiction, and the data do not come from a study designed primarily to examine citation outcomes or traffic encounters. Practical implications – This study would be useful to researchers examining police use of citations, officer behavior in traffic and nontraffic encounters, quantifying law in police‐citizen encounters, and race‐based policing. Originality/value – This study provides a comprehensive review of the literature, and an empirical analysis, regarding officer decision making as it pertains to the issuing of tickets relative to other police actions (i.e. arrest) in traffic and nontraffic situations.

Journal

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & ManagementEmerald Publishing

Published: Sep 1, 2005

Keywords: Police; Policing; Traffic control; Penalty costs; Social dynamics

References

  • The relative cost‐effectiveness of citation and arrest
    Hirschel, J.D.; Dean, C.W.
  • Citation arrest: extending the reach of the criminal justice system?
    Horney, J.
  • Demeanor or crime? Why hostile citizens are more likely to be arrested
    Klinger, D.A.
  • More on demeanor and arrest in Dade County
    Klinger, D.A.
  • Demeanor or crime? The Midwest city police‐citizen encounters study
    Lundman, R.J.
  • The helping hand of the law: police control of citizens on request
    Mastrofski, S.D.; Snipes, J.B.; Parks, R.B.; Maxwell, C.
  • The effects of aggressive policing of disorder on serious crime
    Novak, K.J.; Hartman, J.L.; Holsinger, A.M.; Turner, M.G.
  • Macro‐micro integration in the study of victimization: a hierarchical logistical model analysis across Seattle neighborhoods
    Roundtree, P.W.; Land, K.C.; Miethe, T.D.
  • Gender, police arrest decisions and notions of chivalry
    Visher, C.A.

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