New Materials

New Materials adhesives. It must be applied to a completely dry grease free surface and it cannot withstand very wet conditions. Coils of adhesive backed Rubazote can be supplied in widths of up to 2 in., in lengths of from 18 ft. to Brief Particulars of Recently Introduced Materials likely 50 ft. depending on thickness, e.g. ⅛ in. 50 ft., ½ in. 18 ft. Material over 2 in. wide is only available in to have Aircraft, Missile or Space Vehicle Applications lengths of about 3 ft. TRANSISTOR EYELETS AND BERYLLIUM STRONGER STEEL ALLOYS deals with precipitation in association with 'stacking' OXIDE CERAMICS faults in austenitic steels (austenite is another allo­ Stronger and more reliable steel alloys are the object A new range of products was recently announced by tropic form of iron). Stacking faults are errors in pack­ of research at Sheffield University to be supported by a C. Brandauer and Co. Ltd., New John Street West, ing of the atoms in the crystals, which can have far- grant of £60,720 from the Department of Scientific Birmingham 19, which take the form of a standard reaching effects on mechanical properties, and on and Industrial Research. This work, under the direc­ range of transistor eyelets and beryllium oxide other characteristics of the metal. tion of Professor R. W. K. Honeycombe, of the ceramics. The eyelets are manufactured to extremely While this project is already in progress it is hoped University's metallurgical department, aims to create precise tolerances, and due to the use of exceptionally shortly to commence other fundamental investiga­ a new basic framework in ferrous metallurgy. well-designed carbide progression tools, maximum tions in 'strategic areas' of alloy steel metallurgy, un­ The theoretical strength of steel is about 2,000,000 quality is said to be obtained at economic prices. Pro­ trammelled by present alloy specifications or practice. lb./sq. in., but as yet barely twenty per cent of that prietary glass scaling alloys are used and a full range figure has been achieved in practice often at the ex­ First Part of the Project—Ferritic Steels covers T.O. 5 and T.O.18 requirements in all standard pense of ductility according to Professor Honeycombe. The investigation of precipitation in ferrite (or forms. Up to 12 holes are offered on T.O. 5 pattern. Initial research will be divided between the study of martensite which is formed when ferrite is heated then The full range of ceramic products have been processes which have resulted in higher-strength alloys cooled rapidly) concerns the tempering of alloy steels developed by the Brush Beryllium Co. of Ohio, at normal temperatures, and phenomena which may and the phenomena associated with secondary harden­ marketed under their trademark Thermalox. A wide lead to metals able to resist temperatures up to 1,000 ing. The research team will use thin-film electron variety of types and sizes of Thermalox semi-con­ deg. C. for long periods. A major research tool in microscopy aided by electron and X-ray diffraction ductor bases and stock parts are available. These high these investigations will be a high-resolution electron measurements to study the effects of heat-treatments density, high purity beryllia parts exhibit the optimum microscope which will enable the scientists to see and on high-purity ternary iron alloys such as iron- values for all of the desirable properties of baryllia. record the behaviour of atomic imperfections in steel molybdenum-carbon and iron-vanadium-carbon. Thermal conductivity, for example, is equal to that of samples when various alloying and heat-treatment They will observe the pre-precipitation stage or 'clus­ aluminium and several times higher than that of other techniques are used. Since Sheffield's metallurgy de­ tering' stage, which earlier work has shown to pre­ oxide ceramics. This superior thermal conductivity partment helped pioneer the use of the electron micro­ cede the formation of the carbide precipitates. coupled with beryllia's high electrical resistivity, pro­ scope in this field, some 15 years ago, it is fitting that Maximum strength of the alloy is achieved at this vides a material which simultaneously acts as both a the new project should get under way on the centenary point. It has already been observed that trace addi­ heat path and a dielectric. In addition, Thermalox is of the introduction of the optical microscope to metal­ tions of a number of other elements can considerably chemically inert, extremely refractory and sufficiently lurgy by Dr H. C. Sorby of Sheffield. A century ago increase the alloy's strength, so elucidation of this strong for all electronic applications. A standard magnifications of 100 were considered high. The new discovery can have obvious important practical range of semi-conductor bases covering T.O. 5 and equipment will achieve magnifications of half-a-mil- implications. T.O. 18 requirements is available in addition to lion—and it has a resolution better than a two- disks, washers, plates, rods and cores for resistors. millionth of a millimetre. Second Part of the Project—Austenitic Steels This material can be metalized and offers designers The work will be carried out in close co-operation further opportunities towards reliability and minia­ Precipitation in association with 'stacking' faults in with steel research laboratories in Sheffield and else­ turization. austenitic steels was first observed at Sheffield several where and with British Iron and Steel Research years ago in chromium-nickel-niobium stainless steel. Association. It appears that this can be used as a strengthening TUNGSTEN CARBIDE COATINGS ARE SELF- Steel like other metals and alloys is crystalline in mechanism, and it will be studied in other alloys. The BONDING nature and its strength can be impaired by imperfec­ high thermal stability of this form of precipitation will METCO 439 is a self-bonding tungsten carbide tions in the atomic structure of its component crystals. be studied together with its effects on the properties of powder that can be flame-sprayed to produce very These are generally referred to as 'dislocations'. Al­ steels at high temperatures. This could lead to valu­ hard coatings on almost any metallic surface. Dense, though in theory it would be possible to produce able new developments in heat-resistant steels. wear and heat-resisting coatings are applied in thick­ metal without any dislocations, they would soon ap­ nesses of from 0·002 in. to 0·015 in. at a lower cost pear when the metal was formed or shaped. It is NEW SYNTHETIC AVIATION OIL than similar coating materials deposited by any other therefore necessary to immobilize them, because when Scientists at Esso Research Ltd., Abingdon, the process. Since the coating is self-bonding, it can be they move, and link up with each other, distortion and originators in 1949 of the first synthetic aviation sprayed directly on to a clean surface. No heat-treat- fracture of the metal can result. The simplest method of lubricant for use in gas turbines, have produced a new ment is required after spraying so that a low-melting immobilizing the dislocations is 'work-hardening' high performance synthetic oil to meet the growing point base material can be coated with tungsten car­ achieved merely by deformation, e.g. hammering. demands imposed by new engine developments. bide. This means that aluminium or even magnesium This has the effect of increasing the number of defects The new product, Esso Extra Turbo Oil 274, has alloys can be hard-faced to resist extreme wear or which interact with each other and are prevented from superior properties in high temperature operation, abrasion. A base material that would be metallurgic- moving. giving aviation engine designers freedom to raise en­ ally affected by heat can also be satisfactorily coated. The same effect is achieved by adding other ele­ gine operating temperatures, and to increase engine For short exposures these sprayed coatings will ments to make alloys. This is the most widely used of thrust. The new oil gives superior cleanliness at bear­ tolerate temperatures above their softening point the strengthening techniques. In its simplest terms ing temperatures 50 deg. C. above those previously (slightly above 1,000 deg. C.). In a series of tests this means making a 'super-saturated' solution of used. 0·003 in. coatings applied to 0·005 in. shim steel with­ these materials in the hot metal, e.g. steel, so that pre­ Flight trials of the new lubricant with B.E.A. and stood severe bending, proving the excellent bonding cipitates are formed on cooling. Again this has the B.U.A. together with laboratory and engine tests car­ and flexibility of the coating. Sprayed coatings can be effect of hemming in the dislocations to immobilize ried out by Rolls-Royce, Bristol Siddeley and the finish ground and lapped to give a surface finish of them. Although the most effective particles of the pre­ Ministry of Aviation have thoroughly evaluated the two to four micro inches. cipitate may well be as small as one-millionth of an new product. Esso Extra Turbo Oil 274 will be Potential applications include parts for internal inch across, they can be seen with the electron micro­ available for international use. combustion engines, gas turbines, jet engines, mis­ scope. In steels these particles are commonly com­ It meets the requirements of the Ministry of Avia­ siles, heat-treating equipment, metal-forming machines pounds called carbides which are formed by many of tion D. Eng RD 2487 specification, having ample load and hydraulic equipment. Full details of this new the alloying metals used to make steels. carrying ability, producing less deposit formations, tungsten carbide powder, or any other type of metal The DSIR grant will run until July 31, 1967, but and being free from limitation due to corrosion of or ceramic-coating material, can be obtained from this work is a much longer-term project. Further engine and airframe materials. Research at Abingdon METCO Ltd., Chobham, Woking. grants may be considered and support may be sought on aviation products began in 1942. Aviation fuels, from other sources. Professor Honeycombe has re­ engine oils, hydraulic fluids and greases are continu­ ALUMINIUM AND MAGNESIUM INDUSTRIES: ferred to it as an open-ended project. 'Steel is a ously studied. The new product is a development of CHANGE IN SPONSORSHIP RESPONSIBILITY material which is cheaply and readily available all the original ester type lubricant. It improves perform­ over the world', he said, 'but many very useful develop­ The Ministry of Aviation and the Board of Trade ance and reduces operating costs. ments are still possible, primarily because a very wide has announced that sponsorship responsibility for range of structures and properties can be obtained by aluminium alloys, semi-manufactures of aluminium, ADHESIVE BACKED RUBAZOTE systematic alloying and heat treatment.' aluminium waste and scrap, magnesium alloys, semi­ Initially, with four senior scientists, three or four manufactures of magnesium and magnesium waste Rubazote which is the trade name of a range of ex­ technicians and about ten research students as assist­ and scrap has been transferred from the Ministry of panded rubber produced by Expanded Rubber and ants, he will be following two particular parallel trails, Aviation to the Board of Trade. Plastics Ltd., Mitcham Road, Croydon, Surrey, is both of which were opened up by earlier DSIR grant- now available with an adhesive backing protected by a Correspondence should no longer be addressed to aided research at Sheffield. The first concerns the quick release covering. The company have been sup­ Air A.2(c), Ministry of Aviation, but to: Engineering nucleation and growth of alloy carbides (carbides are plying similar materials to order for the last three Industries Division, Board of Trade, 1 Victoria one type of precipitate already described) and other years, but are only now satisfied that it is suitable for Street, London, S.W.I. compounds in ferritic steels which are steels based on general release. The change in Governmental organization will not ferrite, one of the three different allotropic forms of affect the Ministry of Aviation's responsibilities for The new backing provides a convenient method of iron. This could lead to the development of steel with liaison with the aluminium and magnesium industries locating the material which is widely used as a scaling higher strength and ductility at normal temperatures. on research work and other technical matters affecting strip or in the form of punched gaskets. The limita­ The second line of research, into steels which will re- the development and production of aircraft and tions to the use of this material are that the adhesion ain their strength at temperatures above 900 deg. C., is not as strong as that provided by many brush applied missiles. 196 Aircraft Engineering http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology Emerald Publishing

New Materials

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Volume 37 (6): 1 – Jun 1, 1965

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Publisher
Emerald Publishing
Copyright
Copyright © Emerald Group Publishing Limited
ISSN
0002-2667
DOI
10.1108/eb034034
Publisher site
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Abstract

adhesives. It must be applied to a completely dry grease free surface and it cannot withstand very wet conditions. Coils of adhesive backed Rubazote can be supplied in widths of up to 2 in., in lengths of from 18 ft. to Brief Particulars of Recently Introduced Materials likely 50 ft. depending on thickness, e.g. ⅛ in. 50 ft., ½ in. 18 ft. Material over 2 in. wide is only available in to have Aircraft, Missile or Space Vehicle Applications lengths of about 3 ft. TRANSISTOR EYELETS AND BERYLLIUM STRONGER STEEL ALLOYS deals with precipitation in association with 'stacking' OXIDE CERAMICS faults in austenitic steels (austenite is another allo­ Stronger and more reliable steel alloys are the object A new range of products was recently announced by tropic form of iron). Stacking faults are errors in pack­ of research at Sheffield University to be supported by a C. Brandauer and Co. Ltd., New John Street West, ing of the atoms in the crystals, which can have far- grant of £60,720 from the Department of Scientific Birmingham 19, which take the form of a standard reaching effects on mechanical properties, and on and Industrial Research. This work, under the direc­ range of transistor eyelets and beryllium oxide other characteristics of the metal. tion of Professor R. W. K. Honeycombe, of the ceramics. The eyelets are manufactured to extremely While this project is already in progress it is hoped University's metallurgical department, aims to create precise tolerances, and due to the use of exceptionally shortly to commence other fundamental investiga­ a new basic framework in ferrous metallurgy. well-designed carbide progression tools, maximum tions in 'strategic areas' of alloy steel metallurgy, un­ The theoretical strength of steel is about 2,000,000 quality is said to be obtained at economic prices. Pro­ trammelled by present alloy specifications or practice. lb./sq. in., but as yet barely twenty per cent of that prietary glass scaling alloys are used and a full range figure has been achieved in practice often at the ex­ First Part of the Project—Ferritic Steels covers T.O. 5 and T.O.18 requirements in all standard pense of ductility according to Professor Honeycombe. The investigation of precipitation in ferrite (or forms. Up to 12 holes are offered on T.O. 5 pattern. Initial research will be divided between the study of martensite which is formed when ferrite is heated then The full range of ceramic products have been processes which have resulted in higher-strength alloys cooled rapidly) concerns the tempering of alloy steels developed by the Brush Beryllium Co. of Ohio, at normal temperatures, and phenomena which may and the phenomena associated with secondary harden­ marketed under their trademark Thermalox. A wide lead to metals able to resist temperatures up to 1,000 ing. The research team will use thin-film electron variety of types and sizes of Thermalox semi-con­ deg. C. for long periods. A major research tool in microscopy aided by electron and X-ray diffraction ductor bases and stock parts are available. These high these investigations will be a high-resolution electron measurements to study the effects of heat-treatments density, high purity beryllia parts exhibit the optimum microscope which will enable the scientists to see and on high-purity ternary iron alloys such as iron- values for all of the desirable properties of baryllia. record the behaviour of atomic imperfections in steel molybdenum-carbon and iron-vanadium-carbon. Thermal conductivity, for example, is equal to that of samples when various alloying and heat-treatment They will observe the pre-precipitation stage or 'clus­ aluminium and several times higher than that of other techniques are used. Since Sheffield's metallurgy de­ tering' stage, which earlier work has shown to pre­ oxide ceramics. This superior thermal conductivity partment helped pioneer the use of the electron micro­ cede the formation of the carbide precipitates. coupled with beryllia's high electrical resistivity, pro­ scope in this field, some 15 years ago, it is fitting that Maximum strength of the alloy is achieved at this vides a material which simultaneously acts as both a the new project should get under way on the centenary point. It has already been observed that trace addi­ heat path and a dielectric. In addition, Thermalox is of the introduction of the optical microscope to metal­ tions of a number of other elements can considerably chemically inert, extremely refractory and sufficiently lurgy by Dr H. C. Sorby of Sheffield. A century ago increase the alloy's strength, so elucidation of this strong for all electronic applications. A standard magnifications of 100 were considered high. The new discovery can have obvious important practical range of semi-conductor bases covering T.O. 5 and equipment will achieve magnifications of half-a-mil- implications. T.O. 18 requirements is available in addition to lion—and it has a resolution better than a two- disks, washers, plates, rods and cores for resistors. millionth of a millimetre. Second Part of the Project—Austenitic Steels This material can be metalized and offers designers The work will be carried out in close co-operation further opportunities towards reliability and minia­ Precipitation in association with 'stacking' faults in with steel research laboratories in Sheffield and else­ turization. austenitic steels was first observed at Sheffield several where and with British Iron and Steel Research years ago in chromium-nickel-niobium stainless steel. Association. It appears that this can be used as a strengthening TUNGSTEN CARBIDE COATINGS ARE SELF- Steel like other metals and alloys is crystalline in mechanism, and it will be studied in other alloys. The BONDING nature and its strength can be impaired by imperfec­ high thermal stability of this form of precipitation will METCO 439 is a self-bonding tungsten carbide tions in the atomic structure of its component crystals. be studied together with its effects on the properties of powder that can be flame-sprayed to produce very These are generally referred to as 'dislocations'. Al­ steels at high temperatures. This could lead to valu­ hard coatings on almost any metallic surface. Dense, though in theory it would be possible to produce able new developments in heat-resistant steels. wear and heat-resisting coatings are applied in thick­ metal without any dislocations, they would soon ap­ nesses of from 0·002 in. to 0·015 in. at a lower cost pear when the metal was formed or shaped. It is NEW SYNTHETIC AVIATION OIL than similar coating materials deposited by any other therefore necessary to immobilize them, because when Scientists at Esso Research Ltd., Abingdon, the process. Since the coating is self-bonding, it can be they move, and link up with each other, distortion and originators in 1949 of the first synthetic aviation sprayed directly on to a clean surface. No heat-treat- fracture of the metal can result. The simplest method of lubricant for use in gas turbines, have produced a new ment is required after spraying so that a low-melting immobilizing the dislocations is 'work-hardening' high performance synthetic oil to meet the growing point base material can be coated with tungsten car­ achieved merely by deformation, e.g. hammering. demands imposed by new engine developments. bide. This means that aluminium or even magnesium This has the effect of increasing the number of defects The new product, Esso Extra Turbo Oil 274, has alloys can be hard-faced to resist extreme wear or which interact with each other and are prevented from superior properties in high temperature operation, abrasion. A base material that would be metallurgic- moving. giving aviation engine designers freedom to raise en­ ally affected by heat can also be satisfactorily coated. The same effect is achieved by adding other ele­ gine operating temperatures, and to increase engine For short exposures these sprayed coatings will ments to make alloys. This is the most widely used of thrust. The new oil gives superior cleanliness at bear­ tolerate temperatures above their softening point the strengthening techniques. In its simplest terms ing temperatures 50 deg. C. above those previously (slightly above 1,000 deg. C.). In a series of tests this means making a 'super-saturated' solution of used. 0·003 in. coatings applied to 0·005 in. shim steel with­ these materials in the hot metal, e.g. steel, so that pre­ Flight trials of the new lubricant with B.E.A. and stood severe bending, proving the excellent bonding cipitates are formed on cooling. Again this has the B.U.A. together with laboratory and engine tests car­ and flexibility of the coating. Sprayed coatings can be effect of hemming in the dislocations to immobilize ried out by Rolls-Royce, Bristol Siddeley and the finish ground and lapped to give a surface finish of them. Although the most effective particles of the pre­ Ministry of Aviation have thoroughly evaluated the two to four micro inches. cipitate may well be as small as one-millionth of an new product. Esso Extra Turbo Oil 274 will be Potential applications include parts for internal inch across, they can be seen with the electron micro­ available for international use. combustion engines, gas turbines, jet engines, mis­ scope. In steels these particles are commonly com­ It meets the requirements of the Ministry of Avia­ siles, heat-treating equipment, metal-forming machines pounds called carbides which are formed by many of tion D. Eng RD 2487 specification, having ample load and hydraulic equipment. Full details of this new the alloying metals used to make steels. carrying ability, producing less deposit formations, tungsten carbide powder, or any other type of metal The DSIR grant will run until July 31, 1967, but and being free from limitation due to corrosion of or ceramic-coating material, can be obtained from this work is a much longer-term project. Further engine and airframe materials. Research at Abingdon METCO Ltd., Chobham, Woking. grants may be considered and support may be sought on aviation products began in 1942. Aviation fuels, from other sources. Professor Honeycombe has re­ engine oils, hydraulic fluids and greases are continu­ ALUMINIUM AND MAGNESIUM INDUSTRIES: ferred to it as an open-ended project. 'Steel is a ously studied. The new product is a development of CHANGE IN SPONSORSHIP RESPONSIBILITY material which is cheaply and readily available all the original ester type lubricant. It improves perform­ over the world', he said, 'but many very useful develop­ The Ministry of Aviation and the Board of Trade ance and reduces operating costs. ments are still possible, primarily because a very wide has announced that sponsorship responsibility for range of structures and properties can be obtained by aluminium alloys, semi-manufactures of aluminium, ADHESIVE BACKED RUBAZOTE systematic alloying and heat treatment.' aluminium waste and scrap, magnesium alloys, semi­ Initially, with four senior scientists, three or four manufactures of magnesium and magnesium waste Rubazote which is the trade name of a range of ex­ technicians and about ten research students as assist­ and scrap has been transferred from the Ministry of panded rubber produced by Expanded Rubber and ants, he will be following two particular parallel trails, Aviation to the Board of Trade. Plastics Ltd., Mitcham Road, Croydon, Surrey, is both of which were opened up by earlier DSIR grant- now available with an adhesive backing protected by a Correspondence should no longer be addressed to aided research at Sheffield. The first concerns the quick release covering. The company have been sup­ Air A.2(c), Ministry of Aviation, but to: Engineering nucleation and growth of alloy carbides (carbides are plying similar materials to order for the last three Industries Division, Board of Trade, 1 Victoria one type of precipitate already described) and other years, but are only now satisfied that it is suitable for Street, London, S.W.I. compounds in ferritic steels which are steels based on general release. The change in Governmental organization will not ferrite, one of the three different allotropic forms of affect the Ministry of Aviation's responsibilities for The new backing provides a convenient method of iron. This could lead to the development of steel with liaison with the aluminium and magnesium industries locating the material which is widely used as a scaling higher strength and ductility at normal temperatures. on research work and other technical matters affecting strip or in the form of punched gaskets. The limita­ The second line of research, into steels which will re- the development and production of aircraft and tions to the use of this material are that the adhesion ain their strength at temperatures above 900 deg. C., is not as strong as that provided by many brush applied missiles. 196 Aircraft Engineering

Journal

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace TechnologyEmerald Publishing

Published: Jun 1, 1965

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