PurposeFrom the atom economy and environmentally friendly point of views, the development of clean and green approaches using ionic liquids (ILs) as recyclable catalysts has attracted increasing attention. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of task-specific ILs content on the one-pot three-component Biginelli reaction.Design/methodology/approachA series of halogen-free quaternary ammonium ILs functionalized with –SO3H group were prepared and characterized by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C NMR and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The ILs were used as catalysts for Biginelli reaction among aromatic aldehydes, urea or thiourea and β-dicarbonyl compounds. Anions and cations of ILs were varied to observe their effects on and contributions to the catalysts. The influencing factors, such as the amount of catalyst, solvent, reaction time and reaction temperature, were investigated.FindingsThe effect and contribution of cations of ILs were observed. Results showed that 3-(N, N-dimethylhexadecylammonium) propanesulfonic acid toluene sulfate ([DHPA][Tos]) showed comparable catalytic activity. Good adaptability to the reaction substrate and maximum product yield was observed when [DHPA][Tos] was used as catalyst. It was found that Biginelli reaction catalyzed by 10 mol% [DHPA][Tos] for 3 h under solvent-free conditions at 80 °C gave the best yield of 94%. Post-processing steps were simple, and the catalyst could be reused easily.Originality/valueThis paper demonstrates that ILs containing a long carbon chain and a bulky Tos anion efficiently promoted the reaction, in which the long carbon chains facilitate mass transfer in the reaction system.
World Journal of Engineering – Emerald Publishing
Published: Jan 10, 2020
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