Purpose – The focus of this paper is on the effects of transformational/charismatic leadership and feedback on the occupational self‐efficacy (OCCSEFF) of male and female managers. Given that transformational/charismatic leadership fits the female role better than other leadership styles, it seems likely that female leaders benefit from leading transformationally. However, the feedback they receive may not reflect their actual leadership behaviour and, thus, transformational leadership may not enhance female leaders’ self‐efficacy. Design/methodology/approach – The results of three different studies are reported. Findings – Results indicate that women prefer charismatic leadership and that charismatic leadership is rated more female than male. The feedback female and male leaders receive, however, does not differ. There is a moderating effect of gender on the relationship between individualized consideration and OCCSEFF but none on the relationship between feedback and OCCSEFF. Research limitations/implications – Sample sizes are in part relatively small. Practical implications – Female leaders seem not to gain from leading transformationally. More feedback in that direction may help to overcome this problem. Originality/value – This paper contributes to the discussion of female leadership. In contrast to other work, it highlights the consequences for women themselves.
Equal Opportunities International – Emerald Publishing
Published: Sep 19, 2008
Keywords: Leadership; Managers; Gender; Feedback; Women executives; Self esteem
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