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322 AIRCRAFT ENGINEERIN G November, 1944 OR some time past, His Majesty's Govern port are indeed great; so also will b e its influence, withdrawal of the licence in the event of a ment in the United Kingdom, in consul for good or ill, on international relations. breach of the obligations; tation with the Governments of other 6. In other economic spheres, the importance (vi) provide for the denial of facilities to any Commonwealth countries, have been giving of co-operation between the nations after the unlicensed operator; close attention to the problems of international war has been recognized. I t is no less important (vii) provide for the collection and review of civil air transport and to the general principles tha t the development of air transport should information about services, costs, subsidies, which should govern the post-war arrange proceed under enlightened international direc rates of carriage, landing fees, etc.; ments. The Canadian Government have already tion. Accordingly, the view of His Majesty's (viii) provide for arbitration in matters of published their proposals, other Commonwealth Government, as stated to Parliament on dispute; Governments have announced their views and March 11, 1943, is that "some form of inter (ix) secure the acceptance by the ratifying it now seems appropriate that His Majesty's national collaboration will be essential if the States of an obligation to provide, in their Government in the United Kingdom should lay air is to be developed in the interests of man respective territories, the ground facilities before Parliament the plan which they, for their kind as a whole, trade served, international needed for international services or t o allow part, favour for the ordering of post-war air understandings fostered and some measure of such facilities to be provided; transport. international security gained." The main (x) prescribe safety regulations, such as rules objectives of such collaboration would be: of the air, airworthiness, licensing of per 2. Before the war, the international regula tion of civil aviation was concerned mainly (i) to meet the needs of the peoples of the sonnel and aircraft, ground signals, meteoro with its technical aspects, e.g. safety regulations, world for plentiful, efficient and cheap air logical procedure, etc. (The domestic airlines operating within the territories of rules of the air,, air worthiness, radio and services; th e member States would not be governed meteorological procedure, and the, licensing (ii) to maintain broad equilibrium between b y the Convention, but it is hoped that of personnel and aircraft. Moreover, there was the world's air transport capacity and the States would voluntarily apply the agreed no single International Convention which com traffic offering; standards to their internal services.) manded universal support. At the outbreak of (iii) to ensure equitable participation by the war, the Convention for the Regulation of Air various countries engaged in international (xi) provide for the standardization, so far as Navigation (the Paris Convention of 1919) had air transport; possible, of radio equipment, meteorological been ratified by thirty-three States, but, among (iv) to eliminate wasteful competitive prac and ground facilities. others, the United States, the U.S.S.R. and tices and, in particular, to control subsidies; Th e International Machinery China were not parties to it. In addition to pro (v) to standardize practice on technical mat viding for a high degree of uniformity in tech ters important to the safety of flying; 8. For the administration of the Convention, nical matters, the Convention embodied the (vi) in general, to contribute to world it is proposed tha t an International Air Author doctrine of the national sovereignty of the air. security. it y should be established and under it (i) an Each part y t o the Convention, however, granted Operational Executive with subsidiary Regional to private aircraft of other member States (a) the A New Air Convention Panels; and (ii) sub-Commissions to deal with right of innocent passage through its air space— technical matters. 7. His Majesty's Government propose that a prohibited areas excepted—and (b) freedom of new Convention should be drawn up to take 9. The Authority, which would in due course access to its aerodromes. The operation of the place both of the Paris Convention of 1919 be placed in proper relationship to a World regular commercial air services was, in practice, and of the Havana Convention of 1928, and to Security Organization, would consist of repre subject to the consent of the States through make provision for the regulation of inter sentatives of the ratifying States with voting whose territory the services passed. powers to be determined an an equitable basis. national air transport. This Convention would: 3. The United States of America, in conjunc (i) reaffirm the principle of national sove 10. The composition of the Operational tion with eight Central American Republics reignty of the air an d define what should, for Executive and the procedure for selecting its and Chile, ratified the Havana Convention, this purpose, constitute the territory of a members arc matters for further examination. 1928, which, though broadly comparable in Possibilities arc (a) tha t the members should be State; scope with the Paris Convention, differed in nominated in the Convention; (b) that they (ii) define the degree of freedom of the air to certain important respects. In particular, its should be elected by the Authority; and (c) tha t be enjoyed by the ratifying States, condi application was limited to the American Con they should be nominated by the major Powers, tional on the acceptance in full of the rest of tinen t and it mad e no provision for international with provision for representation of the smaller the Convention. Subject to the right of each uniformity in technical matters. Powers. State to reserve its position in time of war 4. Neither of these Conventions made pro or national emergency, it is proposed that 11. Membership of a Regional Panel would be vision for international regulation in the freedom of the air should extend to: confined to States which have an interest in economic, as opposed to the technical, field. In (a) the right of innocent passage through a international air transport in the areas for the result, the growth of air transport was con State' s air space; which each Panel is responsible. ditioned by political rather than economic (b) the right to land for non-traffic purposes 12. It would be the prime task of the Author considerations and its development as a n orderly (re-fuelling, emergency, etc.); ity to give effect to the provisions of the Con system of world communications was impeded. (c) the right to disembark passengers, vention for the determination and distribution Summed up, the major evils of the pre-war mails and freight from the country of of frequencies and for the fixing of rates of period were, first, that any country on an inter origin of the aircraft; carriage in relation to standards of safety and national air route could hold operators of other (d) the right to embark passengers, mails accommodation. It would, for this purpose, countries to ransom even if those operators only work through the Operational Executive which and freight destined for the country of wished to fly over or refuel in its territory; in turn would delegate its functions as appro origin of the aircraft. secondly, tha t there was no means of controlling priate to the Regional Panels, the decisions of (Note.—The right to pick up an d set down the heavy subsidization of airlines which all too th e Panels being subject to review by the traffic to and from destinations which are often were maintained at great cost for reasons Executive, and those of the Executive, as not in th e country of origin of the aircraft mainly of national prestige or as a war potential; necessary, by the Authority. and the right t o engage in the cabotage of an d thirdly, that the bargaining for transit and another country would be a matter for 13. In addition, the Authority would: commercial rights introduced extraneous con negotiation.) (i) administer the provisions of the Conven siderations and gave rise to international (iii) define the international air routes which tion governing such matters as safety jealousies and mistrust. should be subject to international regula standards and ground organizations; and tion; these would be reviewed from time to (ii) prescribe minimum requirements for time as necessary; international aerodromes and ancillary General Principles (iv) provide for the elimination of unecono facilities, the provision of which would be 5. His Majesty's Government desire to see mic competition by the determination of th e responsibility of the ratifying States; a radical change in this situation after the war. frequencies (total services of all countries or arrange for the provision of such aero Recent technical advances have increased enor operating on any international route), the dromes and facilities in cases where a State mously both the range and carrying-capacity distribution of those frequencies between was unable to do so itself. of transport aircraft. The modern multiple- the countries concerned and the fixing of 14. Such, in broad outline, are the proposals engined aircraft has made possible the develop rates of carriage in relation to standards of which His Majesty's Government favour in ment of a network of air routes which already speed and accommodation; present circumstances for the ordering of post span the world. The potentialities of air trans- (v) provide for the licensing of international war international civil air transport. The pro air operators who undertook to observe posals arc of a provisional nature and may be * Command Paper 65G1 "Presented by the Secretary of State for the Convention and to abide by the rulings modified in the light of views expressed by other Air to Parliament by Command of His Majesty, October, 1944." of the appropriate authority, and for the countries. H.M. Stationery Office, 1d.)
Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology – Emerald Publishing
Published: Nov 1, 1944
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