This paper develops a simultaneous equations model to test the process of interaction between foreign direct investment (FDI), exports and economic growth in three Middle Eastern countries: Egypt, Jordan and Oman, and tests for any possible feedback effects. Most of the FDI in these countries flows from the European Union. The simultaneous equations model results suggest that higher rates of economic growth result in a greater inflow of foreign capital. The regression results also suggest that interest rate differentials exert a much stronger effect than economic growth on the attraction of foreign capital in the case of Egypt. However, this variable does not seem to play a significant role in the case of Oman. Moreover, the simultaneous equations model results suggest that there is a feedback effect in the relationship between economic growth and capital inflow in all sample countries. A greater inflow of foreign capital leads to growth in the exports of good and services. The expansion in exports leads to growth in gross national product that, in turn, encourages the attraction of more foreign capital.
European Business Review – Emerald Publishing
Published: Aug 1, 2004
Keywords: Middle East; European Union; International investments
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