IDENTIFYING STEEL SCRAP

IDENTIFYING STEEL SCRAP AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING 63 than quote him here. "The use of elaborate formulae," he writes, " which have a theoretical basis is to be encouraged from the point Aircraft Engineering of view of the much needed research on this subject... , but, in the Devote d t o th e Scienc e an d Practic e of Aero ­ purely practical application of this work, it is recognized that use should be made of the simplest or most convenient formula which nautic s and to Allied and Subsidiary has been firmly established by experiment within the known limits of error." Branche s of th e Engineerin g Industry The Evolutionary Process Editor: Lieut.-Col. W. Lockwood Marsh, O.B.E., F.R.Ae.S.,M.S.A.E.,F.I.Ae.S, There is stated succinctly the logical sequence of the evolution which should take place from the beginning of pure research through Vol. XV, No. 169 March 1943 the stage of experiment to the final step of practical application in the design office. If this were more widely appreciated there would be less mutual criticism, between- the research worker and the practical designer. The former is primarily interested in funda­ LL who are concerned with the manufacture of components mentals and in order to ensure that basic theory is well founded from steel have from time to time met mysterious instances must use th e finest tools available to him in the mathematical world. of the material proving unwontedly intractable and dis­ The fact that few have attained the heights at which these are playing qualities quite inexplicable if it were correct to specification. comprehensible does not imply—as is sometimes assumed—that This has usually proved to be due, on analysis, to the inclusion of an therefore they are futile. Their use is a necessary preliminary to th e unwanted element in the process of mixing for melting—due, in its next step when the results arc confirmed by planned experiment in turn, to careless picking up of a wrong type of steel from the avail­ the laboratory. It is only then that attention should be directed able scrap. Theoretically, of course, in a perfectly organized works to the search for simplification to make the method available this should not be possible ; but in war conditions, with inexperi­ for the engineer. It is easy to gibe at th e obscurity of th e language enced personnel too often having to be employed on work for which they use, but the aeroplane as we know it to-day, and certainly as they are insufficiently trained, it does undoubtedly happen. we shall see it in ten or twenty years' time, would not exist without the fundamental work of such researchers as are quoted in this The Ministry's Colour Scheme paper. To think otherwise is to sink to the level of MR. PUNCH'S We publish in this issue a note issued by the MINISTRY OF SUPPLY north country miner who, finding the talk of a south country inter­ instituting a system of identification by colours, designed so far as loper completely incomprehensible, exhorted his friend to " 'eave is humanly possible to avoid the occurrence—though it stops short 'alf a brick at 'im", The more humble attitude of mind of one who, of suggesting how th e colours are to be applied to scrap which, as is failing to understand a new subject, ascribes this rather to some often the case, has been broken up into small pieces or may be little lack in his own mental capacity, or knowledge, than to a quaint more than " pairings". When a number of articles, such as small eccentricity in his instructor commends itself more, we confess, to us. tools, some in carbon and some high-speed steel are produced in the same shop it is not easy to ensure that the scrap—whether in The Wood of Knowledge the form of rejected tools or broken pieces—is put into the right The trut h is, of course, tha t there are "faults on both sides. There pile ; so tha t the colour-idehtification plan will not, we fear, prove undoubtedly exist—we have all experienced them—those who so by any means an absolute safeguard, though it is undoubtedly a love calculations for their own sake that they take a positive delight sound idea. in obscurity and will pursue a phantom formula in and out among To identify, at an early stage, scrap which has wrongly slipped the trees of the mathematical forest quite oblivious of the fact that, through the net in as easy and rapid a way as is possible is obviously owing t o the original premise being faulty, they entered at the wrong desirable and a method of rough classification which will avoid point, and arc following paths which will only lead to deeper im­ comparatively elaborate tests in the works laboratory is naturally mersion in impenetrable darkness. But it is wrong for those who a great boon. do not understand higher mathematics, on this account to despise them ; however justifiable it may be t o view the resulting formulae Tell-Tale Sparks with a certain reserve until their truth has been confirmed by As it happens, we are enabled to publish also this month a descrip­ experiment. tion of such a method by MESSRS. SKERRY. & HICKS . It is so simple, all the equipment necessary being an abrasive wheel, that at first Two Complementary Functions sight it seems "to o easy", but we are assured that it "work s " and We have always felt that one of the most important services as a rough guide it can be relied upon, at any rate sufficiently AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING can give to the aeronautical community is to indicate the necessity, or otherwise, for further more careful to provide a medium for the interpretation of the obscure to the investigations. In order to illustrate the method as informatively practical engineer and we have been pleased that on so many occa­ as possible we have had a coloured block made from a chalk drawing sions advantage has been taken of our existence to use us for this specially prepared by the authors so that anyone wishing Jo experi­ purpose. This does not, however, detract from the fact that we can ment with it can do so with the aid of the picture beside him. on occasion do equally good work by publishing at an early stage in We are having a few extra copies of this illustrative guide to the a fundamental investigation the first fruits of research in order that types and colours of the sparks given off by various classes of steel they may be examined and considered by those capable of so doing. printed and shall be glad to send one to any reader not already The two functions seem to us t o be complementary and no criticism familiar with the method. tha t we are at times too "technical" will divert us from this course. THE INTERPRETATION OF RESEARCH Supplies of AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING We are gratified that, as indicated at the end of the paper, Several instances have recently been brought to ou r notice AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING should be the chosen medium for the dis­ of reader s being informed by thei r newsagent s tha t they ar e unable to supply copies of AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING regu­ semination of MR. FALKNER'S paper on the resistance of a smooth larly. Anyone encountering this difficulty is urged to send flat plate with turbulent boundary layer, which incorporates a new a subscription direct to 12 Bloomsbur y Square, London, law for calculating drag and, even more important, provides a W.C.I. , when arrangements will be mad e to fulfil these simpler method of making calculations than the somewhat com­ orders , as a sufficient number of copies is now printe d to mee t all reasonable demands. plicated logarithmic methods hitherto available. MR. FAI.KNER puts this point well himself and we feel that we cannot do better http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology Emerald Publishing

IDENTIFYING STEEL SCRAP

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, Volume 15 (3): 1 – Mar 1, 1943

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Publisher
Emerald Publishing
Copyright
Copyright © Emerald Group Publishing Limited
ISSN
0002-2667
DOI
10.1108/eb030995
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Abstract

AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING 63 than quote him here. "The use of elaborate formulae," he writes, " which have a theoretical basis is to be encouraged from the point Aircraft Engineering of view of the much needed research on this subject... , but, in the Devote d t o th e Scienc e an d Practic e of Aero ­ purely practical application of this work, it is recognized that use should be made of the simplest or most convenient formula which nautic s and to Allied and Subsidiary has been firmly established by experiment within the known limits of error." Branche s of th e Engineerin g Industry The Evolutionary Process Editor: Lieut.-Col. W. Lockwood Marsh, O.B.E., F.R.Ae.S.,M.S.A.E.,F.I.Ae.S, There is stated succinctly the logical sequence of the evolution which should take place from the beginning of pure research through Vol. XV, No. 169 March 1943 the stage of experiment to the final step of practical application in the design office. If this were more widely appreciated there would be less mutual criticism, between- the research worker and the practical designer. The former is primarily interested in funda­ LL who are concerned with the manufacture of components mentals and in order to ensure that basic theory is well founded from steel have from time to time met mysterious instances must use th e finest tools available to him in the mathematical world. of the material proving unwontedly intractable and dis­ The fact that few have attained the heights at which these are playing qualities quite inexplicable if it were correct to specification. comprehensible does not imply—as is sometimes assumed—that This has usually proved to be due, on analysis, to the inclusion of an therefore they are futile. Their use is a necessary preliminary to th e unwanted element in the process of mixing for melting—due, in its next step when the results arc confirmed by planned experiment in turn, to careless picking up of a wrong type of steel from the avail­ the laboratory. It is only then that attention should be directed able scrap. Theoretically, of course, in a perfectly organized works to the search for simplification to make the method available this should not be possible ; but in war conditions, with inexperi­ for the engineer. It is easy to gibe at th e obscurity of th e language enced personnel too often having to be employed on work for which they use, but the aeroplane as we know it to-day, and certainly as they are insufficiently trained, it does undoubtedly happen. we shall see it in ten or twenty years' time, would not exist without the fundamental work of such researchers as are quoted in this The Ministry's Colour Scheme paper. To think otherwise is to sink to the level of MR. PUNCH'S We publish in this issue a note issued by the MINISTRY OF SUPPLY north country miner who, finding the talk of a south country inter­ instituting a system of identification by colours, designed so far as loper completely incomprehensible, exhorted his friend to " 'eave is humanly possible to avoid the occurrence—though it stops short 'alf a brick at 'im", The more humble attitude of mind of one who, of suggesting how th e colours are to be applied to scrap which, as is failing to understand a new subject, ascribes this rather to some often the case, has been broken up into small pieces or may be little lack in his own mental capacity, or knowledge, than to a quaint more than " pairings". When a number of articles, such as small eccentricity in his instructor commends itself more, we confess, to us. tools, some in carbon and some high-speed steel are produced in the same shop it is not easy to ensure that the scrap—whether in The Wood of Knowledge the form of rejected tools or broken pieces—is put into the right The trut h is, of course, tha t there are "faults on both sides. There pile ; so tha t the colour-idehtification plan will not, we fear, prove undoubtedly exist—we have all experienced them—those who so by any means an absolute safeguard, though it is undoubtedly a love calculations for their own sake that they take a positive delight sound idea. in obscurity and will pursue a phantom formula in and out among To identify, at an early stage, scrap which has wrongly slipped the trees of the mathematical forest quite oblivious of the fact that, through the net in as easy and rapid a way as is possible is obviously owing t o the original premise being faulty, they entered at the wrong desirable and a method of rough classification which will avoid point, and arc following paths which will only lead to deeper im­ comparatively elaborate tests in the works laboratory is naturally mersion in impenetrable darkness. But it is wrong for those who a great boon. do not understand higher mathematics, on this account to despise them ; however justifiable it may be t o view the resulting formulae Tell-Tale Sparks with a certain reserve until their truth has been confirmed by As it happens, we are enabled to publish also this month a descrip­ experiment. tion of such a method by MESSRS. SKERRY. & HICKS . It is so simple, all the equipment necessary being an abrasive wheel, that at first Two Complementary Functions sight it seems "to o easy", but we are assured that it "work s " and We have always felt that one of the most important services as a rough guide it can be relied upon, at any rate sufficiently AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING can give to the aeronautical community is to indicate the necessity, or otherwise, for further more careful to provide a medium for the interpretation of the obscure to the investigations. In order to illustrate the method as informatively practical engineer and we have been pleased that on so many occa­ as possible we have had a coloured block made from a chalk drawing sions advantage has been taken of our existence to use us for this specially prepared by the authors so that anyone wishing Jo experi­ purpose. This does not, however, detract from the fact that we can ment with it can do so with the aid of the picture beside him. on occasion do equally good work by publishing at an early stage in We are having a few extra copies of this illustrative guide to the a fundamental investigation the first fruits of research in order that types and colours of the sparks given off by various classes of steel they may be examined and considered by those capable of so doing. printed and shall be glad to send one to any reader not already The two functions seem to us t o be complementary and no criticism familiar with the method. tha t we are at times too "technical" will divert us from this course. THE INTERPRETATION OF RESEARCH Supplies of AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING We are gratified that, as indicated at the end of the paper, Several instances have recently been brought to ou r notice AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING should be the chosen medium for the dis­ of reader s being informed by thei r newsagent s tha t they ar e unable to supply copies of AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING regu­ semination of MR. FALKNER'S paper on the resistance of a smooth larly. Anyone encountering this difficulty is urged to send flat plate with turbulent boundary layer, which incorporates a new a subscription direct to 12 Bloomsbur y Square, London, law for calculating drag and, even more important, provides a W.C.I. , when arrangements will be mad e to fulfil these simpler method of making calculations than the somewhat com­ orders , as a sufficient number of copies is now printe d to mee t all reasonable demands. plicated logarithmic methods hitherto available. MR. FAI.KNER puts this point well himself and we feel that we cannot do better

Journal

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace TechnologyEmerald Publishing

Published: Mar 1, 1943

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