Gender longevity gap and socioeconomic indicators in developed countries

Gender longevity gap and socioeconomic indicators in developed countries PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to explain relations between socioeconomic factors and gender longevity gap and to test a number of contradicting theories.Design/methodology/approachFixed effects models are used for cross-country panel data analysis.FindingsThe authors show that in developed countries (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and European Union) a lower gender longevity gap is associated with a higher real GDP per capita, a higher level of urbanization, lower income inequality, lower per capita alcohol consumption and a better ecological environment. An increase in women’s aggregate unemployment rate and a decline in men’s unemployment are associated with a higher gap in life expectancies. There is also some evidence that the effect of the share of women in parliaments has a U-shape; it has a better descriptive efficiency if taken with a four-year lag, which approximately corresponds to the length of political cycles.Research limitations/implicationsFindings are valid only for developed countries.Practical implicationsThe findings are important for policy discussions, such as designs of pension schemes, gender-based taxation, ecological, urban, health and labor policy.Social implicationsThe factors that increase male and female longevities also reduce the gender longevity gap.Originality/valueThe results contradict to a number of studies for developing countries, which show that lower economic development and greater women discrimination result in a lower gender longevity gap.Peer reviewThe peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/IJSE-02-2019-0082 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png International Journal of Social Economics Emerald Publishing

Gender longevity gap and socioeconomic indicators in developed countries

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Publisher
Emerald Publishing
Copyright
Copyright © Emerald Group Publishing Limited
ISSN
0306-8293
DOI
10.1108/IJSE-02-2019-0082
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

PurposeThe purpose of this paper is to explain relations between socioeconomic factors and gender longevity gap and to test a number of contradicting theories.Design/methodology/approachFixed effects models are used for cross-country panel data analysis.FindingsThe authors show that in developed countries (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development and European Union) a lower gender longevity gap is associated with a higher real GDP per capita, a higher level of urbanization, lower income inequality, lower per capita alcohol consumption and a better ecological environment. An increase in women’s aggregate unemployment rate and a decline in men’s unemployment are associated with a higher gap in life expectancies. There is also some evidence that the effect of the share of women in parliaments has a U-shape; it has a better descriptive efficiency if taken with a four-year lag, which approximately corresponds to the length of political cycles.Research limitations/implicationsFindings are valid only for developed countries.Practical implicationsThe findings are important for policy discussions, such as designs of pension schemes, gender-based taxation, ecological, urban, health and labor policy.Social implicationsThe factors that increase male and female longevities also reduce the gender longevity gap.Originality/valueThe results contradict to a number of studies for developing countries, which show that lower economic development and greater women discrimination result in a lower gender longevity gap.Peer reviewThe peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/IJSE-02-2019-0082

Journal

International Journal of Social EconomicsEmerald Publishing

Published: Dec 20, 2019

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