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Gender inequalities in golf: a consented exclusion?

Gender inequalities in golf: a consented exclusion? Purpose – In the late eighteenth century, golf emerged as a men's game. Since then, women have striven to play, yet without success. A ratio of around 80 percent of male players against 20 percent female proves that women are far from being accepted in golf. This study, supported by qualitative analyses of women golfers' life stories, attempts to evaluate to what extent this prejudice exists. Design/methodology/approach – The ecological system theory, the causal historical wave model, the intrapersonal, interpersonal and structural factors, and the constraints/facilitators paradigm were first used to support the theoretical model that was defined based on the literature. Second, the model was revisited according to textual data collected from 25 narratives of women in the nineteenth century. The present research applies this model throughout a set of six life stories of contemporary Portuguese women who excelled in golf, attempting to test the persistence of this discrimination. Findings – The results highlight that structural and interpersonal factors persist across time. Some aspects of women's lifestyle did not change much since some cultural values are difficult to overcome. The research highlights that the exclusion of women, more than explicit discrimination, is a cultural factor engrained in their daily lives, meaning that women exclude themselves, tacitly accepting this discrimination. Research limitations/implications – The research focuses only on Portuguese women. Further studies should evaluate the pertinence of these factors amongst other nationalities and cultures. Originality/value – The low participation of women in golf is acknowledged by golf stakeholders in Portugal, but this has not been the object of research; thus, to the authors' knowledge, this is the first paper about this subject in Portugal. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research Emerald Publishing

Gender inequalities in golf: a consented exclusion?

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Publisher
Emerald Publishing
Copyright
Copyright © 2013 Emerald Group Publishing Limited. All rights reserved.
ISSN
1750-6182
DOI
10.1108/IJCTHR-12-2011-0005
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Purpose – In the late eighteenth century, golf emerged as a men's game. Since then, women have striven to play, yet without success. A ratio of around 80 percent of male players against 20 percent female proves that women are far from being accepted in golf. This study, supported by qualitative analyses of women golfers' life stories, attempts to evaluate to what extent this prejudice exists. Design/methodology/approach – The ecological system theory, the causal historical wave model, the intrapersonal, interpersonal and structural factors, and the constraints/facilitators paradigm were first used to support the theoretical model that was defined based on the literature. Second, the model was revisited according to textual data collected from 25 narratives of women in the nineteenth century. The present research applies this model throughout a set of six life stories of contemporary Portuguese women who excelled in golf, attempting to test the persistence of this discrimination. Findings – The results highlight that structural and interpersonal factors persist across time. Some aspects of women's lifestyle did not change much since some cultural values are difficult to overcome. The research highlights that the exclusion of women, more than explicit discrimination, is a cultural factor engrained in their daily lives, meaning that women exclude themselves, tacitly accepting this discrimination. Research limitations/implications – The research focuses only on Portuguese women. Further studies should evaluate the pertinence of these factors amongst other nationalities and cultures. Originality/value – The low participation of women in golf is acknowledged by golf stakeholders in Portugal, but this has not been the object of research; thus, to the authors' knowledge, this is the first paper about this subject in Portugal.

Journal

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality ResearchEmerald Publishing

Published: Oct 4, 2013

Keywords: Gender; Discrimination; Facilitators/constraints; Golf – nineteenth to twenty‐first centuries

References

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