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Formulation designs and characterisations of whey‐protein based API adhesives

Formulation designs and characterisations of whey‐protein based API adhesives Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of the components of whey‐protein based aqueous polymer‐isocyanate (API) adhesives on the bond strength. Design/methodology/approach – The bond test (according to the JIS K6806‐2003 standard), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterise the whey‐protein based API adhesives with various formulations and processing technologies. Findings – The good bond strength of the optimised whey‐protein based API adhesive was attributed to the formation of strong chemical bonds in the bondline and to the additions of polyisocyanate, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and nano‐CaCO 3 powder that improved adhesive cohesive strength by either chemical crosslinks or mechanical interlocking. The blending procedures of whey protein, PVA, polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) and p‐p‐MDI had great impacts on the performances of the whey‐protein based API adhesives. Research limitations/implications – SEM micrographs showed that the effects of blending processes on the bond strength, pot life and colour might be attributed to the particle size of hydrophobic p‐MDI droplet and p‐MDI distribution in the protein‐PVA matrix. Practical implications – The study lays the foundations of the formulation design and the processing technology for preparing whey‐protein based API adhesives. Originality/value – The effects of the components of whey‐protein based API adhesives and the effects of blending processes on the bond strength were investigated by means bond strength evaluation, FTIR and SEM analyses; whey protein is utilised successfully to prepare novel API adhesives for structural uses. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Pigment & Resin Technology Emerald Publishing

Formulation designs and characterisations of whey‐protein based API adhesives

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Publisher
Emerald Publishing
Copyright
Copyright © 2011 Emerald Group Publishing Limited. All rights reserved.
ISSN
0369-9420
DOI
10.1108/03699421111180563
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of the components of whey‐protein based aqueous polymer‐isocyanate (API) adhesives on the bond strength. Design/methodology/approach – The bond test (according to the JIS K6806‐2003 standard), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to characterise the whey‐protein based API adhesives with various formulations and processing technologies. Findings – The good bond strength of the optimised whey‐protein based API adhesive was attributed to the formation of strong chemical bonds in the bondline and to the additions of polyisocyanate, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and nano‐CaCO 3 powder that improved adhesive cohesive strength by either chemical crosslinks or mechanical interlocking. The blending procedures of whey protein, PVA, polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) and p‐p‐MDI had great impacts on the performances of the whey‐protein based API adhesives. Research limitations/implications – SEM micrographs showed that the effects of blending processes on the bond strength, pot life and colour might be attributed to the particle size of hydrophobic p‐MDI droplet and p‐MDI distribution in the protein‐PVA matrix. Practical implications – The study lays the foundations of the formulation design and the processing technology for preparing whey‐protein based API adhesives. Originality/value – The effects of the components of whey‐protein based API adhesives and the effects of blending processes on the bond strength were investigated by means bond strength evaluation, FTIR and SEM analyses; whey protein is utilised successfully to prepare novel API adhesives for structural uses.

Journal

Pigment & Resin TechnologyEmerald Publishing

Published: Nov 8, 2011

Keywords: Adhesives; Polymers; Mechanical properties; Water based; Isocyanate; Whey protein

References