Factors affecting variability in farm and off‐farm income

Factors affecting variability in farm and off‐farm income Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors affecting the relative variability in farm and off‐farm income for Canadian farm operators. Design/methodology/approach – Variability of farm and off‐farm income is analyzed using a dataset of 17,000 farm operators from 2001 to 2006. Relative ranking of the coefficients of variation (CV) for farm and off‐farm income are compared across farm types and are regressed against factors conditioning the variations. Findings – Greater reliance on farm income results in lower (greater) relative variability in farm (off‐farm) income. Larger commercial operations experience larger farm income volatility because they are less risk averse or they can manage more risk. Diversification and off‐farm employment appear to be risk management strategies for commercial operations. Research limitations/implications – Government payments have a small, positive effect on farm and off‐farm income variability, indicating this support leads farmers to take on more risky activities and/or reduce the use of self‐insurance activities. Results could also be due to the lag between the time of the income reduction and the time in which the aid is received. Further research is necessary to decipher the effects of government support on farm decisions. Practical implications – The results on relative variation in the farm and off‐farm income across farm type raises questions about whether government programs should target specific operations. Originality/value – While income variation remains a focus of public policy, factors affecting its variability are not well‐understood. Studies have examined the level of farm income and the decision to participate in off‐farm employment but none has examined the variance in both income sources. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Agricultural Finance Review Emerald Publishing

Factors affecting variability in farm and off‐farm income

Agricultural Finance Review, Volume 71 (3): 19 – Nov 8, 2011

Loading next page...
 
/lp/emerald-publishing/factors-affecting-variability-in-farm-and-off-farm-income-S4qsHGeC2o
Publisher
Emerald Publishing
Copyright
Copyright © 2011 Emerald Group Publishing Limited. All rights reserved.
ISSN
0002-1466
DOI
10.1108/00021461111177639
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the factors affecting the relative variability in farm and off‐farm income for Canadian farm operators. Design/methodology/approach – Variability of farm and off‐farm income is analyzed using a dataset of 17,000 farm operators from 2001 to 2006. Relative ranking of the coefficients of variation (CV) for farm and off‐farm income are compared across farm types and are regressed against factors conditioning the variations. Findings – Greater reliance on farm income results in lower (greater) relative variability in farm (off‐farm) income. Larger commercial operations experience larger farm income volatility because they are less risk averse or they can manage more risk. Diversification and off‐farm employment appear to be risk management strategies for commercial operations. Research limitations/implications – Government payments have a small, positive effect on farm and off‐farm income variability, indicating this support leads farmers to take on more risky activities and/or reduce the use of self‐insurance activities. Results could also be due to the lag between the time of the income reduction and the time in which the aid is received. Further research is necessary to decipher the effects of government support on farm decisions. Practical implications – The results on relative variation in the farm and off‐farm income across farm type raises questions about whether government programs should target specific operations. Originality/value – While income variation remains a focus of public policy, factors affecting its variability are not well‐understood. Studies have examined the level of farm income and the decision to participate in off‐farm employment but none has examined the variance in both income sources.

Journal

Agricultural Finance ReviewEmerald Publishing

Published: Nov 8, 2011

Keywords: Canada; Farms; Income; Subsidies; Farm income; Off‐farm income; Coefficient of variation; Income variation

References

  • Farm income variability and off‐farm diversification among Canadian farm operators
    Freshwater, D.; Jetté‐Nantel, S.; Katchova, A.; Beaulieu, M.
  • Economics of structural change in agriculture
    Goddard, E.; Weersink, A.; Chen, K.; Turvey, C.G.
  • Regulation and the financial performance of Canadian agribusinesses
    Schaufele, B.; Sparling, D.

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create folders to
organize your research

Export folders, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off