Evaluation of the influence of Bi and Sb additions to Sn‐Ag‐Cu and Sn‐Zn alloys on their surface tension and wetting properties using analysis of variance – ANOVA

Evaluation of the influence of Bi and Sb additions to Sn‐Ag‐Cu and Sn‐Zn alloys on their... Purpose – The purpose of this paper is a comparable evaluation of the influence of a particular element (Bi and Sb) added to Sn‐Ag‐Cu and Sn‐Zn alloys on their surface and interfacial tensions, as well as the wetting properties on the Cu substrate expressed by the wetting angle. Design/methodology/approach – The authors applied the L 8 orthogonal Taguchi array to carry out the experiments and discussed the results using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Findings – It was expected, on the base of previous studies, the decrease of the surface and interfacial tensions and thus improving wettability after the Bi and Sb addition to Sn‐Ag‐Cu and Sn‐Zn alloys. Unfortunately, the obtained results on the quinary Sn‐Ag‐Cu‐Bi‐Sb alloys and the quaternary Sn‐Zn‐Bi‐Sb alloys do not confirm these trends. The performed analyses suggest that the compositions of the quinary Sn‐Ag‐Cu‐Bi‐Sb alloys, as well as the quaternary Sn‐Zn‐Bi‐Sb alloys, do not have optimal compositions for practical application. The Cu, Bi and Sb elements in the case of the Sn‐Ag‐Cu‐Bi‐Sb alloys and the Zn, Bi and Sb elements in the case of the Sn‐Zn‐Bi‐Sb alloys show mutual interaction and, in consequence, there is no correlation between the tendency of the surface and interfacial tensions changes and the wettings of the Cu substrate. Research limitations/implications – It is suggested that further studies are necessary for the purpose of the practical application, but they should be limited mainly to the Sn‐Ag‐Cu‐Bi and the Sn‐Zn‐Bi alloys with the optimal compositions. Practical implications – The performed analysis suggests that none of the investigated compositions of the quinary Sn‐Ag‐Cu‐Bi‐Sb alloys, as well as the quaternary Sn‐Zn‐Bi‐Sb alloys, have the optimal compositions for practical application. Originality/value – The quickest way to determine which element of the alloy composition influences the surface tension and the wetting properties, and how, is to apply orthogonal analysis. After choosing the orthogonal array, the experiments were performed and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to perform the quantifiable analysis of the measured and calculated results of surface and interfacial tensions, as well as the wetting properties on the Cu substrate. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Soldering & Surface Mount Technology Emerald Publishing

Evaluation of the influence of Bi and Sb additions to Sn‐Ag‐Cu and Sn‐Zn alloys on their surface tension and wetting properties using analysis of variance – ANOVA

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Publisher
Emerald Publishing
Copyright
Copyright © 2008 Emerald Group Publishing Limited. All rights reserved.
ISSN
0954-0911
D.O.I.
10.1108/09540910810902660
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Purpose – The purpose of this paper is a comparable evaluation of the influence of a particular element (Bi and Sb) added to Sn‐Ag‐Cu and Sn‐Zn alloys on their surface and interfacial tensions, as well as the wetting properties on the Cu substrate expressed by the wetting angle. Design/methodology/approach – The authors applied the L 8 orthogonal Taguchi array to carry out the experiments and discussed the results using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Findings – It was expected, on the base of previous studies, the decrease of the surface and interfacial tensions and thus improving wettability after the Bi and Sb addition to Sn‐Ag‐Cu and Sn‐Zn alloys. Unfortunately, the obtained results on the quinary Sn‐Ag‐Cu‐Bi‐Sb alloys and the quaternary Sn‐Zn‐Bi‐Sb alloys do not confirm these trends. The performed analyses suggest that the compositions of the quinary Sn‐Ag‐Cu‐Bi‐Sb alloys, as well as the quaternary Sn‐Zn‐Bi‐Sb alloys, do not have optimal compositions for practical application. The Cu, Bi and Sb elements in the case of the Sn‐Ag‐Cu‐Bi‐Sb alloys and the Zn, Bi and Sb elements in the case of the Sn‐Zn‐Bi‐Sb alloys show mutual interaction and, in consequence, there is no correlation between the tendency of the surface and interfacial tensions changes and the wettings of the Cu substrate. Research limitations/implications – It is suggested that further studies are necessary for the purpose of the practical application, but they should be limited mainly to the Sn‐Ag‐Cu‐Bi and the Sn‐Zn‐Bi alloys with the optimal compositions. Practical implications – The performed analysis suggests that none of the investigated compositions of the quinary Sn‐Ag‐Cu‐Bi‐Sb alloys, as well as the quaternary Sn‐Zn‐Bi‐Sb alloys, have the optimal compositions for practical application. Originality/value – The quickest way to determine which element of the alloy composition influences the surface tension and the wetting properties, and how, is to apply orthogonal analysis. After choosing the orthogonal array, the experiments were performed and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to perform the quantifiable analysis of the measured and calculated results of surface and interfacial tensions, as well as the wetting properties on the Cu substrate.

Journal

Soldering & Surface Mount TechnologyEmerald Publishing

Published: Sep 19, 2008

Keywords: Alloys; Solders; Surface chemistry

References

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