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Densification behaviour of pure copper processed through cold pressing and binder jetting under different atmospheres

Densification behaviour of pure copper processed through cold pressing and binder jetting under... Binder jetting is a promising route to produce complex copper components for electronic/thermal applications. This paper aims to lay a framework for determining the effects of sintering parameters on the final microstructure of copper parts fabricated through binder jetting.Design/methodology/approachThe knowledge gained from well-established powder metallurgy processes was leveraged to study the densification behaviour of a fine high-purity copper powder (D50 of 3.4 µm) processed via binder jetting, by performing dilatometry and microstructural characterization. The effects of sintering parameters on densification of samples obtained with a commercial water-based binder were also explored.FindingsSintering started at lower temperature in cold-pressed (∼680 °C) than in binder jetted parts (∼900 °C), because the strain energy introduced by powder compression reduces the sintering activation energy. Vacuum sintering promoted pore closure, resulting in greater and more uniform densification than sintering in argon, as argon pressure stabilizes the residual porosity. About 6.9% residual porosity was obtained with air sintering in the presence of graphite, promoting solid-state diffusion by copper oxide reduction.Originality/valueThis paper reports the first systematic characterization of the thermal events occurring during solid-state sintering of high-purity copper under different atmospheres. The results can be used to optimize the sintering parameters for the manufacturing of complex copper components through binder jetting. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Rapid Prototyping Journal Emerald Publishing

Densification behaviour of pure copper processed through cold pressing and binder jetting under different atmospheres

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References (53)

Publisher
Emerald Publishing
Copyright
© Emerald Publishing Limited
ISSN
1355-2546
eISSN
1355-2546
DOI
10.1108/rpj-09-2021-0243
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Binder jetting is a promising route to produce complex copper components for electronic/thermal applications. This paper aims to lay a framework for determining the effects of sintering parameters on the final microstructure of copper parts fabricated through binder jetting.Design/methodology/approachThe knowledge gained from well-established powder metallurgy processes was leveraged to study the densification behaviour of a fine high-purity copper powder (D50 of 3.4 µm) processed via binder jetting, by performing dilatometry and microstructural characterization. The effects of sintering parameters on densification of samples obtained with a commercial water-based binder were also explored.FindingsSintering started at lower temperature in cold-pressed (∼680 °C) than in binder jetted parts (∼900 °C), because the strain energy introduced by powder compression reduces the sintering activation energy. Vacuum sintering promoted pore closure, resulting in greater and more uniform densification than sintering in argon, as argon pressure stabilizes the residual porosity. About 6.9% residual porosity was obtained with air sintering in the presence of graphite, promoting solid-state diffusion by copper oxide reduction.Originality/valueThis paper reports the first systematic characterization of the thermal events occurring during solid-state sintering of high-purity copper under different atmospheres. The results can be used to optimize the sintering parameters for the manufacturing of complex copper components through binder jetting.

Journal

Rapid Prototyping JournalEmerald Publishing

Published: May 23, 2022

Keywords: Binder jetting; Additive manufacturing; Powder metallurgy; Copper; Dilatometry; Sintering

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