The founders of cybernetics and systems are presented, among them N. Wiener, W.S. McCulloch and L. von Bertalanffy. Some precursors are cited from antiquity to 20th century. The basic concepts are exposed: feedback, quantity of information, requisite variety, homeostasis, local and global points of view, oprn systems, autopoiesis. The roles of the observer and of the actor are emphasized. Future is considered in three directions: development of epistemology and of praxiology, symbiosis of man and machine, role of requisite variety in the survival of mankind.
Kybernetes – Emerald Publishing
Published: Jul 1, 2003
Keywords: Cybernetics; Systems
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