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Control Over Foreign Flights

Control Over Foreign Flights 36 AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING February, 1933 A n American Example that may set a Lead for other Countries (b) Authorization for foreign flight.—The H E following extract from the U.S. After it has been shown that the participants Departmen t of Commerce, Aeronautics owner or pilot of United States registered in the project are competent and that the Branch, Air Commerce Bulletin, Vol. IV, aircraft shall secure authorization from the aircraft is airworthy and suitably equipped for No. 11, December 1, 1932, is reprinted as of Departmen t of Commerce prior to flight, ex­ such an undertaking, the Department of Com­ general interest owing to the possibility of cept on regular scheduled operation, over any merce will make application through the State governments of other countries taking similar foreign country other than Canada, Mexico, Department , for permission for the aircraft and powers: — and Cuba. Such authorization may be issued airmen in question to enter or fly over the Closer supervision over preparations for after permission for th e flight has been accorded nations included in the plans. When this per­ by the country or countries to be visited and the flights to foreign countries by American airmen mission has been obtained, the person in Secretary of Commerce is satisfied that the air­ will be exercised hereafter by the Aeronautics charge of the flight will be advised to this craft and airman utilized are qualified for the effect and also that there exists no apparent Branch under the provisions of an amendment typ e of flight contemplated. objection to the flight being undertaken. t o the Air Commerce Regulations which became effective November 16, 1932. Aircraft and airmen licences may be sus­ I t is important that those engaged in such The amendment is designed to discourage pended or revoked for failure to secure prior flights observe the laws and regulations of the inexperienced pilots and inadequately equipped authorization for foreign flight or for operating various countries over which they fly. This aircraft from attempting transoceanic flights and in violation of the terms of such authorization includes recent reciprocal arrangements estab­ other flight projects to foreign countries. Also, issued by the Secretary or for violation of the lished between the United States and other the amendment is intended to ensure that per­ laws or regulations of any country over which countries, the violation of which would serve- the aircraft is operated. mission for flight by American airmen to or t o bring about international complications. in foreign countries will have been obtained (c) Unlicensed aircraft.—Unlicensed aircraft from each nation to be visited before the I t is not the intention of the Department of t o which unlicensed identification numbers or flight is begun. The latter phase has been Commerce to interfere with constructive flights marks have been issued shall not be flown in worked out in co-operation with the State to foreign countries, whether they be over water an y foreign country. Department . or land, as long as they are undertaken by Under the terms of the amendment the Although it has kept a close watch on all such persons qualified for such flights and in equip­ Aeronautics Branch is working on a code of flights in the past, the Aeronautics Branch has ment that is suitable. minimum requirements to be observed by all no t officially intervened in the preparations, aspirants for foreign flight permission. This The department recognises the sporting owing to the experimental nature of most of such doubtless will include the following salient element in such adventures and the sporting undertakings and the desire on the part of the features : instinct which exists among those in aero­ sponsors and participants to employ the oceans Tha t the pilot possess ability to fly entirely by nautics as well as those in other fields of en­ as proving grounds for their skill and equipment. instrument s or "blind" . deavour. In this connection it is not the In view of the fact that further transoceanic object of the department to prohibit such flights Tha t he possesses a substantial amount of flights with conventional equipment are re­ bu t rather to assist in determining tha t there is cross-country night-flying experience. petitious in character, it is believed that closer a reasonable opportunity for their successful Tha t he be qualified as a navigator or be supervision over such attempts in the future is completion. accompanied by one. now in order. Tha t the aircraft meet the airworthiness Transoceanic flight failures of the past have standard s of the Department of Commerce. apparentl y been largely due to one or more of The tex t of the amendment is as follows:— Tha t duplicates of certain instruments be th e following causes: (1) Lack of ability in the Sec. 36. Foreign flight. provided to guard against failure of such in­ science of air navigation, (2) insufficient fuel for (a) Entry and clearance.—The entry and struments when they are needed most. th e length of the flight, (3) inability to fly by clearance of aircraft into or from the United instruments in adverse weather, and (4) lack of Tha t the necessary amount of fuel for the States shall be in compliance with the Entry proper equipment. It is these which the de­ project be supplied and that the aircraft shall and Clearance of Aircraft Regulations (Aero­ partmen t seeks to overcome. have the ability to carry such a load. nautics Bulletin No. 7—C). British Air Lines U.S. and Compared Percentage of passenger miles flown per passenger- obtained on British air lines during the period H E following statistics of the percentage seat mile available October, 1931-September, 1932, as given in of the capacity offered actually occupied Passenge r Passenger - Pe r th e following extract from the speech of Sir on U.S. air lines during the period Mont h mile s sea t miles cen t Eri c Geddes, the Chairman, to the shareholders October, 1931—October, 1932, is extracted of Imperial Airways, Ltd., at the annual from the U.S. Department of Commerce, 11,119,119 28,059,481 39·62 Octobe r .. .. .. Novembe r .. .. .. 7,456,470 22,801,798 32·70 general meeting of the Company on October Aeronautics Branch, Air Commerce Bulletin, Decembe r 6,021,806 21,375,826 28·17 26, 1932: Vol. IV, No. 12, December 15, 1932: Januar y .. .. .. 6,077,088 21,051,376 28·86 "A s reflected in reports t o th e Departmen t of "W e actually sold 56·2 per cent of the total Februar y .. .. .. 5,792,811 19,249,106 30·0 9 Marc h .. .. .. .. 8,143,663 23,623,220 34·47 Commerce by air transpor t operators, American capacity offered, compared with 56·8 per cent 10,306,475 23,698,323 43 49 Apri l .. .. .. .. scheduled passenger aircraft flew with ap­ in the previous year—a very satisfactory May .. .. .. .. 11,700,557 26,504,978 44-14 June .. .. .. .. 26,788,180 46·71 proximately 44 per cent of the available scats figure when one bears in mind the general July .. .. .. .. 14,774,709 29,374,524 50·29 occupied during October, 1932, as compared falling off in travel statistics all over the world, 15,936,363 29,909,518 53·28 Augus t .. .. .. . Septembe r .. .. .. 14,583,877 28,005,079 52·07 with about 40 per cent in October, 1931. The and the fact that owing to the great increase 11,191,550 25,644,132 43·64 Octobe r . . .. .. .. in the size of your aircraft [by the introduction average for the 13 months ending October 31, 135,618,640 326,185,541 †41·57 Total * .. .. .. of the four-engined Handley-Page 42-seater 1932, was nearly 42 per cent. class.—EDITOR ] the percentage figure is cal­ I n July, August, and September of this year, * Total for 13 mouths. † Average for 13 months. culated on a very much higher total. In fact, the percentage of available space taken was, the capacity offered increased from 1,600,000 (In connection with the above figures it is respectively 50, 53, and 52. ton-miles to 2,230,000 ton-miles." interesting to recall the comparative figures The following table gives details: " http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology Emerald Publishing

Control Over Foreign Flights

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology , Volume 5 (2): 1 – Feb 1, 1933

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Publisher
Emerald Publishing
Copyright
Copyright © Emerald Group Publishing Limited
ISSN
0002-2667
DOI
10.1108/eb029654
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Abstract

36 AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING February, 1933 A n American Example that may set a Lead for other Countries (b) Authorization for foreign flight.—The H E following extract from the U.S. After it has been shown that the participants Departmen t of Commerce, Aeronautics owner or pilot of United States registered in the project are competent and that the Branch, Air Commerce Bulletin, Vol. IV, aircraft shall secure authorization from the aircraft is airworthy and suitably equipped for No. 11, December 1, 1932, is reprinted as of Departmen t of Commerce prior to flight, ex­ such an undertaking, the Department of Com­ general interest owing to the possibility of cept on regular scheduled operation, over any merce will make application through the State governments of other countries taking similar foreign country other than Canada, Mexico, Department , for permission for the aircraft and powers: — and Cuba. Such authorization may be issued airmen in question to enter or fly over the Closer supervision over preparations for after permission for th e flight has been accorded nations included in the plans. When this per­ by the country or countries to be visited and the flights to foreign countries by American airmen mission has been obtained, the person in Secretary of Commerce is satisfied that the air­ will be exercised hereafter by the Aeronautics charge of the flight will be advised to this craft and airman utilized are qualified for the effect and also that there exists no apparent Branch under the provisions of an amendment typ e of flight contemplated. objection to the flight being undertaken. t o the Air Commerce Regulations which became effective November 16, 1932. Aircraft and airmen licences may be sus­ I t is important that those engaged in such The amendment is designed to discourage pended or revoked for failure to secure prior flights observe the laws and regulations of the inexperienced pilots and inadequately equipped authorization for foreign flight or for operating various countries over which they fly. This aircraft from attempting transoceanic flights and in violation of the terms of such authorization includes recent reciprocal arrangements estab­ other flight projects to foreign countries. Also, issued by the Secretary or for violation of the lished between the United States and other the amendment is intended to ensure that per­ laws or regulations of any country over which countries, the violation of which would serve- the aircraft is operated. mission for flight by American airmen to or t o bring about international complications. in foreign countries will have been obtained (c) Unlicensed aircraft.—Unlicensed aircraft from each nation to be visited before the I t is not the intention of the Department of t o which unlicensed identification numbers or flight is begun. The latter phase has been Commerce to interfere with constructive flights marks have been issued shall not be flown in worked out in co-operation with the State to foreign countries, whether they be over water an y foreign country. Department . or land, as long as they are undertaken by Under the terms of the amendment the Although it has kept a close watch on all such persons qualified for such flights and in equip­ Aeronautics Branch is working on a code of flights in the past, the Aeronautics Branch has ment that is suitable. minimum requirements to be observed by all no t officially intervened in the preparations, aspirants for foreign flight permission. This The department recognises the sporting owing to the experimental nature of most of such doubtless will include the following salient element in such adventures and the sporting undertakings and the desire on the part of the features : instinct which exists among those in aero­ sponsors and participants to employ the oceans Tha t the pilot possess ability to fly entirely by nautics as well as those in other fields of en­ as proving grounds for their skill and equipment. instrument s or "blind" . deavour. In this connection it is not the In view of the fact that further transoceanic object of the department to prohibit such flights Tha t he possesses a substantial amount of flights with conventional equipment are re­ bu t rather to assist in determining tha t there is cross-country night-flying experience. petitious in character, it is believed that closer a reasonable opportunity for their successful Tha t he be qualified as a navigator or be supervision over such attempts in the future is completion. accompanied by one. now in order. Tha t the aircraft meet the airworthiness Transoceanic flight failures of the past have standard s of the Department of Commerce. apparentl y been largely due to one or more of The tex t of the amendment is as follows:— Tha t duplicates of certain instruments be th e following causes: (1) Lack of ability in the Sec. 36. Foreign flight. provided to guard against failure of such in­ science of air navigation, (2) insufficient fuel for (a) Entry and clearance.—The entry and struments when they are needed most. th e length of the flight, (3) inability to fly by clearance of aircraft into or from the United instruments in adverse weather, and (4) lack of Tha t the necessary amount of fuel for the States shall be in compliance with the Entry proper equipment. It is these which the de­ project be supplied and that the aircraft shall and Clearance of Aircraft Regulations (Aero­ partmen t seeks to overcome. have the ability to carry such a load. nautics Bulletin No. 7—C). British Air Lines U.S. and Compared Percentage of passenger miles flown per passenger- obtained on British air lines during the period H E following statistics of the percentage seat mile available October, 1931-September, 1932, as given in of the capacity offered actually occupied Passenge r Passenger - Pe r th e following extract from the speech of Sir on U.S. air lines during the period Mont h mile s sea t miles cen t Eri c Geddes, the Chairman, to the shareholders October, 1931—October, 1932, is extracted of Imperial Airways, Ltd., at the annual from the U.S. Department of Commerce, 11,119,119 28,059,481 39·62 Octobe r .. .. .. Novembe r .. .. .. 7,456,470 22,801,798 32·70 general meeting of the Company on October Aeronautics Branch, Air Commerce Bulletin, Decembe r 6,021,806 21,375,826 28·17 26, 1932: Vol. IV, No. 12, December 15, 1932: Januar y .. .. .. 6,077,088 21,051,376 28·86 "A s reflected in reports t o th e Departmen t of "W e actually sold 56·2 per cent of the total Februar y .. .. .. 5,792,811 19,249,106 30·0 9 Marc h .. .. .. .. 8,143,663 23,623,220 34·47 Commerce by air transpor t operators, American capacity offered, compared with 56·8 per cent 10,306,475 23,698,323 43 49 Apri l .. .. .. .. scheduled passenger aircraft flew with ap­ in the previous year—a very satisfactory May .. .. .. .. 11,700,557 26,504,978 44-14 June .. .. .. .. 26,788,180 46·71 proximately 44 per cent of the available scats figure when one bears in mind the general July .. .. .. .. 14,774,709 29,374,524 50·29 occupied during October, 1932, as compared falling off in travel statistics all over the world, 15,936,363 29,909,518 53·28 Augus t .. .. .. . Septembe r .. .. .. 14,583,877 28,005,079 52·07 with about 40 per cent in October, 1931. The and the fact that owing to the great increase 11,191,550 25,644,132 43·64 Octobe r . . .. .. .. in the size of your aircraft [by the introduction average for the 13 months ending October 31, 135,618,640 326,185,541 †41·57 Total * .. .. .. of the four-engined Handley-Page 42-seater 1932, was nearly 42 per cent. class.—EDITOR ] the percentage figure is cal­ I n July, August, and September of this year, * Total for 13 mouths. † Average for 13 months. culated on a very much higher total. In fact, the percentage of available space taken was, the capacity offered increased from 1,600,000 (In connection with the above figures it is respectively 50, 53, and 52. ton-miles to 2,230,000 ton-miles." interesting to recall the comparative figures The following table gives details: "

Journal

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace TechnologyEmerald Publishing

Published: Feb 1, 1933

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