Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to show how CO 2 equivalent emissions are closely linked with economic development, over time and also across countries. Design/methodology/approach – Emissions data from energy information administration were subjected to macro analysis, regressed upon GDP data, longitudinally and cross‐sectionally. Findings – The conversion factor linking energy to output to pollution is estimated over time and between economies. It is today far too high, making global climate change almost certain. Practical implications – Global environmental coordination is very difficult to achieve, given the nature of this gigantic PD game in combination with weak institutions for policy making and implementation. The only way to stabilise CO 2 emissions is to focus upon the conversion factor linking energy to output to pollution. Originality/value – The paper shows the clear and Juggernaut type connections between energy‐economic output‐CO 2 emissions.
International Journal of Social Economics – Emerald Publishing
Published: Sep 27, 2011
Keywords: Ecology; Economic development; Economic growth; Environmental management; CO 2 emissions; GDP; Conversion factor; Climate change; Pollution of atmosphere; Green economy; Government policy