British Food Journal Volume 46 Issue 12 1944

British Food Journal Volume 46 Issue 12 1944 1. The Committee have received a request from the Tea and Coffee Division for advice as to appropriate standards for liquid coffee essences including coffee and chicory essences, with a view to the issue of an Order prescribing standards for these products under the Defence Sale of Food Regulations, 1943. 2. From the information given to the Committee by members of the trade and by the Division, the following conclusions were drawn i Purchasers of coffee and chicory essences appreciate the characteristic bitterness of chicory and would not regard with favour a product made with coffee only. ii If supplies of chicory in any season fell short of the quantity necessary for the maintenance of the desired output of coffee and chicory essences, there would be a tendency to include some alternative flavouring such an mangolds, malt, artichokes or parsnips. iii These materials are in no way deleterious to health, and their use is not objectionable provided the public is not misled as to the nature of the product. 3. Standards for coffee essences and coffee and chicory essences have been established in certain of the Dominions. The former are usually required to contain not less than 05 per cent. weight in weight of caffeine, the latter not less than 025 per cent. weight in weight. In this country a minimum standard of 4 per cent. weight in weight of dry coffee extractives has been proposed for coffee and chicory essences. Assuming that coffee contains 1225 per cent. of caffeine, that it yelds 25 per cent. of dry extractives, and that these standards relate to essences that have a specific gravity of 12, 05 per cent. of caffeine corresponds to about 4lb. of coffee per gallon, and 4 per cent. of extractives corresponds to slightly under 2lb. per gallon. 4. If the standards are expressed as a percentage weight in weight manufacturers of products having a lower gravity would be able to use less coffee per unit volume of product than would have to be used by manufacturers of products of higher gravity. This is obviously undesirable and for this and other reasons the Committee consider it preferable to express the standard as a percentage weight in volume so that the proportion of coffee to be used for the manufacture of a given volume of essence will be independent of variations in the proportions of other ingredients. 5. Having regard to the above standards and to the proportions of coffee used both prewar and at present in most of the coffee and chicory essences on the market, the Committee are of the opinion that a product should not be sold as coffee essence unless prepared with at least 4lb. of roasted coffee per gallon, and that no compounded coffee product for producing a beverage should be sold as derived from coffee unless it contains at least 2lb. of roasted coffee per gallon. 6. There is, however, no direct method of determining the proportion of coffee used in these products, and for analytical purposes it is necessary to rely on determinations of the caffeine content and, when no other vegetable ingredient is present, of the dry extractives. Part of the value of the essences must be ascribed to the stimulating effect of the caffeine content which is derived solely from the coffee. The use of an adequate proportion of coffee in the manufacture of essences and the presence of a reasonable proportion of caffeine can therefore be conveniently ensured by expressing the standard in terms of a minimum percentage of caffeine. The Committee consider that a fair average figure for the caffeine content of roasted coffee is 125 per cent. A coffee essence prepared with the minimum proportion of coffee suggested above, namely, 41b. of coffee per gallon, would, if the coffee is of average caffeine content, contain 05 per cent. wv of caffeine and coffee and chicory essences not less than 025 per cent. wv of caffeine. 7. While an essence prepared with the minimum proportion of coffee would comply with the above standard if the coffee were of average caffeine content, the latter may fall to 1 per cent. or, on rare occasions, evenlower. Thus a manufacturer who did not regularly submit his essence to analysis might market an essence which although prepared with the minimum proportion of coffee that is considered desirable did not comply with the caffeine standard. The Committee therefore recommend that it should be a defence in any prosecution in respect of an alleged infringement of the standard to prove that the essence had been made with not less than 41b. of roasted coffee per gallon in the case of a coffee essence or with not less than 21b. of roasted coffee per gallon in the case of a coffee and chicory essence. 8. Consideration has been given to the bearing of the foregoing recommendations on the use of alternatives to chicory in products regarded as falling within the broad definition of Coffee Essence adopted for the particular purposes of the Coffee Essence Control Order, 1942. The Committee are of the opinion that the sale of these preparations under the description coffee essence or coffee and chicory essence without qualification would, in general, be misleading. In addition, a requirement that they should contain not less than 21b. of coffee per gallon might prove embarrassing to the manufacturers. It is accordingly suggested that products sold under these descriptions should not be permitted to contain vegetable extractives other than extractives of coffee or coffee and chicory respectively. If standards including a requirement to this effect be prescribed for these two types of essence by an Order under the Defence Sale of Food Regulations, 1943, then under the Food Standards Order, 1944, it will be obligatory to describe products containing alternatives to chicory in such a way as not to lead an intending purchaser to believe that he is purchasing either coffee essence or coffee and chicory essence. Traders and the public will then be able clearly to distinguish products containing only coffee and chicory from those which contain alternatives either in addition to, or in place of, chicory. 9. The further question arises whether a standard chicory content should be prescribed for coffee and chicory essences. Although it is usually possible to ascertain the chicory content of such essences with fair accuracy from the figures for the ash and extractive matter derived from the amount of coffee calculated to be present by reference to the caffeine content, so far as the Committee are aware there is no method of sufficient accuracy for use in enforcing a statutory standard. Apart from this it appears to be unnecessary to fetter the discretion of manufacturers to the extent of fixing the relative proportions of coffee and chicory provided the combined weights of coffee and chicory are satisfactory. The standard proposed above for coffee and chicory essences will ensure a content of not less than 21b. of roasted coffee per gallon, and having regard to the weights of coffee and chicory used both prewar and at present in eighteen brands the Committee consider that it should be made a condition of the grant of a licence under the Coffee Essence Control Order, 1942, that these products should be prepared with not less than 41b. of roasted coffee and chicory per gallon. 10. The Committee accordingly recommend that 1 Liquid coffee should be required to contain not less than 05 per cent. weight in volume of caffeine derived from coffee. 2 Liquid coffee essences should not be permitted to contain vegetable extractives other than extractives derived from coffee. 3 Liquid coffee and chicory essences should be required to contain not less than 025 per cent. weight in volume of caffeine derived from coffee. 4 Liquid coffee and chicory essences should not be permitted to contain vegetable extractives other than extractives derived from coffee or chicory. 5 In any proceedings in respect of an alleged infringement of the standard for coffee essences or for coffee and chicory essences, it should be a defence for the defendant to prove that the essence was prepared with not less than 41b. of roasted coffee per gallon in the case of coffee essences or 21b. per gallon in the case of coffee and chicory essences. 6 It should be made a condition of the grant of a licence under the Coffee Essence Control Order, 1942, for the manufacture of a coffee and chicory essence that the product should be prepared with not less than 41b. of roasted coffee and chicory per gallon. In a prcis of the Committee's report which has been issued by the Ministry, it is stated that in certain Dominions coffee essences are required to contain not less than 05 per cent. weight in weight of caffeine, and coffee and chicory essences not less than 025 per cent. weight in weight. In this country a minimum standard of 4 per cent. weight in weight of dry coffee extractives has been proposed for coffee and chicory essences. Assuming that coffee contains 125 per cent. of caffeine, that it yields 25 per cent. of dry extractives, and that these standards relate to essences that have a specific gravity of 12, 05 per cent. of caffeine corresponds to about 4lb. of coffee per gallon, and 4 per cent. of extractives corresponds to slightly under 21b. per gallon. If the standards are expressed as a percentage weight in weight, manufacturers of products having a lower gravity would be able to use less coffee per unit volume of product than manufacturers of products of higher gravity. For this and other reasons the Committee consider it preferable to express the standard as a percentage weight in volume. In view of the above standards and the proportions of coffee used both prewar and at present in most of the coffee and chicory essences on the market, the Committee consider that a product should not be sold as coffee essence unless prepared with at least 41b. of roasted coffee per gallon, and that no compounded coffee product for producing a beverage should be sold as derived from coffee unless it contains at least 21b. of roasted coffee per gallon. In the absence of a direct method of determining the proportion of coffee used, and since part of the value of the essences must be ascribed to the stimulating effect of the caffeine content, the Committee recommend that the standard be expressed as a minimum percentage of caffeine. A coffee essence prepared with 41b. of coffee per gallon would, if the coffee contained 125 per cent. of caffeine, which is regarded as a fair average, contain 05 per cent. wv of caffeine, and coffee and chicory essences not less than 025 per cent. wv of caffeine. The defence suggested in recommendation 5 above is to provide for the possibility that the caffeine content of the coffee used may be below the average. Reference is made in the recommendations to preparations containing alternatives to chicory, which may be regarded as falling within the broad definition of Coffee Essence, adopted for the particular purposes of the Coffee Essence Control Order, 1942. The Committee consider that the sale of these preparations under the description coffee essence or coffee and chicory essence without qualification would, in general, be misleading. In addition, a requirement that they should contain not less than 21b. of coffee per gallon might prove embarrassing to the manufacturers. It is therefore suggested that products sold under these descriptions should not be permitted to contain vegetable extractives, other than extractives of coffee or coffee and chicory respectively. Under the Food Standards Order, 1944, it will then be obligatory to describe products containing alternatives to chicory in such a way as not to lead an intending purchaser to believe that he is purchasing either coffee essence or coffee and chicory essence. Traders and the public will thus be able clearly to distinguish products containing only coffee and chicory from those which contain alternatives either in addition to, or in place of, chicory. The Committee suggest that it is unnecessary to fetter the discretion of manufacturers to the extent of fixing the relative proportions of coffee and chicory provided the combined weights of coffee and chicory are satisfactory as suggested in recommendation 6. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png British Food Journal Emerald Publishing

British Food Journal Volume 46 Issue 12 1944

British Food Journal, Volume 46 (12): 10 – Dec 1, 1944

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Publisher
Emerald Publishing
Copyright
Copyright © Emerald Group Publishing Limited
ISSN
0007-070X
DOI
10.1108/eb011395
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

1. The Committee have received a request from the Tea and Coffee Division for advice as to appropriate standards for liquid coffee essences including coffee and chicory essences, with a view to the issue of an Order prescribing standards for these products under the Defence Sale of Food Regulations, 1943. 2. From the information given to the Committee by members of the trade and by the Division, the following conclusions were drawn i Purchasers of coffee and chicory essences appreciate the characteristic bitterness of chicory and would not regard with favour a product made with coffee only. ii If supplies of chicory in any season fell short of the quantity necessary for the maintenance of the desired output of coffee and chicory essences, there would be a tendency to include some alternative flavouring such an mangolds, malt, artichokes or parsnips. iii These materials are in no way deleterious to health, and their use is not objectionable provided the public is not misled as to the nature of the product. 3. Standards for coffee essences and coffee and chicory essences have been established in certain of the Dominions. The former are usually required to contain not less than 05 per cent. weight in weight of caffeine, the latter not less than 025 per cent. weight in weight. In this country a minimum standard of 4 per cent. weight in weight of dry coffee extractives has been proposed for coffee and chicory essences. Assuming that coffee contains 1225 per cent. of caffeine, that it yelds 25 per cent. of dry extractives, and that these standards relate to essences that have a specific gravity of 12, 05 per cent. of caffeine corresponds to about 4lb. of coffee per gallon, and 4 per cent. of extractives corresponds to slightly under 2lb. per gallon. 4. If the standards are expressed as a percentage weight in weight manufacturers of products having a lower gravity would be able to use less coffee per unit volume of product than would have to be used by manufacturers of products of higher gravity. This is obviously undesirable and for this and other reasons the Committee consider it preferable to express the standard as a percentage weight in volume so that the proportion of coffee to be used for the manufacture of a given volume of essence will be independent of variations in the proportions of other ingredients. 5. Having regard to the above standards and to the proportions of coffee used both prewar and at present in most of the coffee and chicory essences on the market, the Committee are of the opinion that a product should not be sold as coffee essence unless prepared with at least 4lb. of roasted coffee per gallon, and that no compounded coffee product for producing a beverage should be sold as derived from coffee unless it contains at least 2lb. of roasted coffee per gallon. 6. There is, however, no direct method of determining the proportion of coffee used in these products, and for analytical purposes it is necessary to rely on determinations of the caffeine content and, when no other vegetable ingredient is present, of the dry extractives. Part of the value of the essences must be ascribed to the stimulating effect of the caffeine content which is derived solely from the coffee. The use of an adequate proportion of coffee in the manufacture of essences and the presence of a reasonable proportion of caffeine can therefore be conveniently ensured by expressing the standard in terms of a minimum percentage of caffeine. The Committee consider that a fair average figure for the caffeine content of roasted coffee is 125 per cent. A coffee essence prepared with the minimum proportion of coffee suggested above, namely, 41b. of coffee per gallon, would, if the coffee is of average caffeine content, contain 05 per cent. wv of caffeine and coffee and chicory essences not less than 025 per cent. wv of caffeine. 7. While an essence prepared with the minimum proportion of coffee would comply with the above standard if the coffee were of average caffeine content, the latter may fall to 1 per cent. or, on rare occasions, evenlower. Thus a manufacturer who did not regularly submit his essence to analysis might market an essence which although prepared with the minimum proportion of coffee that is considered desirable did not comply with the caffeine standard. The Committee therefore recommend that it should be a defence in any prosecution in respect of an alleged infringement of the standard to prove that the essence had been made with not less than 41b. of roasted coffee per gallon in the case of a coffee essence or with not less than 21b. of roasted coffee per gallon in the case of a coffee and chicory essence. 8. Consideration has been given to the bearing of the foregoing recommendations on the use of alternatives to chicory in products regarded as falling within the broad definition of Coffee Essence adopted for the particular purposes of the Coffee Essence Control Order, 1942. The Committee are of the opinion that the sale of these preparations under the description coffee essence or coffee and chicory essence without qualification would, in general, be misleading. In addition, a requirement that they should contain not less than 21b. of coffee per gallon might prove embarrassing to the manufacturers. It is accordingly suggested that products sold under these descriptions should not be permitted to contain vegetable extractives other than extractives of coffee or coffee and chicory respectively. If standards including a requirement to this effect be prescribed for these two types of essence by an Order under the Defence Sale of Food Regulations, 1943, then under the Food Standards Order, 1944, it will be obligatory to describe products containing alternatives to chicory in such a way as not to lead an intending purchaser to believe that he is purchasing either coffee essence or coffee and chicory essence. Traders and the public will then be able clearly to distinguish products containing only coffee and chicory from those which contain alternatives either in addition to, or in place of, chicory. 9. The further question arises whether a standard chicory content should be prescribed for coffee and chicory essences. Although it is usually possible to ascertain the chicory content of such essences with fair accuracy from the figures for the ash and extractive matter derived from the amount of coffee calculated to be present by reference to the caffeine content, so far as the Committee are aware there is no method of sufficient accuracy for use in enforcing a statutory standard. Apart from this it appears to be unnecessary to fetter the discretion of manufacturers to the extent of fixing the relative proportions of coffee and chicory provided the combined weights of coffee and chicory are satisfactory. The standard proposed above for coffee and chicory essences will ensure a content of not less than 21b. of roasted coffee per gallon, and having regard to the weights of coffee and chicory used both prewar and at present in eighteen brands the Committee consider that it should be made a condition of the grant of a licence under the Coffee Essence Control Order, 1942, that these products should be prepared with not less than 41b. of roasted coffee and chicory per gallon. 10. The Committee accordingly recommend that 1 Liquid coffee should be required to contain not less than 05 per cent. weight in volume of caffeine derived from coffee. 2 Liquid coffee essences should not be permitted to contain vegetable extractives other than extractives derived from coffee. 3 Liquid coffee and chicory essences should be required to contain not less than 025 per cent. weight in volume of caffeine derived from coffee. 4 Liquid coffee and chicory essences should not be permitted to contain vegetable extractives other than extractives derived from coffee or chicory. 5 In any proceedings in respect of an alleged infringement of the standard for coffee essences or for coffee and chicory essences, it should be a defence for the defendant to prove that the essence was prepared with not less than 41b. of roasted coffee per gallon in the case of coffee essences or 21b. per gallon in the case of coffee and chicory essences. 6 It should be made a condition of the grant of a licence under the Coffee Essence Control Order, 1942, for the manufacture of a coffee and chicory essence that the product should be prepared with not less than 41b. of roasted coffee and chicory per gallon. In a prcis of the Committee's report which has been issued by the Ministry, it is stated that in certain Dominions coffee essences are required to contain not less than 05 per cent. weight in weight of caffeine, and coffee and chicory essences not less than 025 per cent. weight in weight. In this country a minimum standard of 4 per cent. weight in weight of dry coffee extractives has been proposed for coffee and chicory essences. Assuming that coffee contains 125 per cent. of caffeine, that it yields 25 per cent. of dry extractives, and that these standards relate to essences that have a specific gravity of 12, 05 per cent. of caffeine corresponds to about 4lb. of coffee per gallon, and 4 per cent. of extractives corresponds to slightly under 21b. per gallon. If the standards are expressed as a percentage weight in weight, manufacturers of products having a lower gravity would be able to use less coffee per unit volume of product than manufacturers of products of higher gravity. For this and other reasons the Committee consider it preferable to express the standard as a percentage weight in volume. In view of the above standards and the proportions of coffee used both prewar and at present in most of the coffee and chicory essences on the market, the Committee consider that a product should not be sold as coffee essence unless prepared with at least 41b. of roasted coffee per gallon, and that no compounded coffee product for producing a beverage should be sold as derived from coffee unless it contains at least 21b. of roasted coffee per gallon. In the absence of a direct method of determining the proportion of coffee used, and since part of the value of the essences must be ascribed to the stimulating effect of the caffeine content, the Committee recommend that the standard be expressed as a minimum percentage of caffeine. A coffee essence prepared with 41b. of coffee per gallon would, if the coffee contained 125 per cent. of caffeine, which is regarded as a fair average, contain 05 per cent. wv of caffeine, and coffee and chicory essences not less than 025 per cent. wv of caffeine. The defence suggested in recommendation 5 above is to provide for the possibility that the caffeine content of the coffee used may be below the average. Reference is made in the recommendations to preparations containing alternatives to chicory, which may be regarded as falling within the broad definition of Coffee Essence, adopted for the particular purposes of the Coffee Essence Control Order, 1942. The Committee consider that the sale of these preparations under the description coffee essence or coffee and chicory essence without qualification would, in general, be misleading. In addition, a requirement that they should contain not less than 21b. of coffee per gallon might prove embarrassing to the manufacturers. It is therefore suggested that products sold under these descriptions should not be permitted to contain vegetable extractives, other than extractives of coffee or coffee and chicory respectively. Under the Food Standards Order, 1944, it will then be obligatory to describe products containing alternatives to chicory in such a way as not to lead an intending purchaser to believe that he is purchasing either coffee essence or coffee and chicory essence. Traders and the public will thus be able clearly to distinguish products containing only coffee and chicory from those which contain alternatives either in addition to, or in place of, chicory. The Committee suggest that it is unnecessary to fetter the discretion of manufacturers to the extent of fixing the relative proportions of coffee and chicory provided the combined weights of coffee and chicory are satisfactory as suggested in recommendation 6.

Journal

British Food JournalEmerald Publishing

Published: Dec 1, 1944

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