temperatur e than more Bio-isolates (BI) are an extremely These are substances which large group of biological conventional methods of protein help to give us our wide range compounds , which when extraction from solution. Less than of food choices. Harry Ardeshir incorporated into a food system will 10% of the functional proteins are describes them enhanc e some of its more desirable damage d during the extraction of whe y during Bipro manufacture. or necessary characteristics such as Whey proteins structure , texture and flavour. Such Ther e are other limitations that compound s can be protein, fat or Whe y proteins have achieved an inhibi t most dairy protein isolates carbohydrat e in nature. Since the importan t significance within the from being fully exploited in food diversit y of the group is so large food industry. Whey is the aqueous manufactur e and include, for this article will concentrate on example, high levels of fat or fraction obtained after the protei n based BI. coagulation of milk with acid, heat lactose, off flavour, solubility, and or rennet, during cheese denaturatio n of the functional In general, all BI share similar, manufacture. Its composition will protei n groups. valuable properties and functions to thei r parent molecule when vary, depending on the type of As Bipro is pur e protein, it can incorporate d into a food. Since BI cheese being manufactured. Sweet b e used to replace larger quantities whe y powder in particular is are more purified, for example, they of other protein based BI such as extensively used in the manufacture ar e protein separated from caseinates, soya protein, egg of foods. Commercially, large carbohydrate , their functional whites , or gelling agents. Bipro can propertie s will b e considerably quantitie s of whey are utilised after b e used to improve the flavour and enhanced . Table 1 illustrates some concentration as shown in Table 3. efficiency of the final product typical functional properties of formulation in those foods where a The whe y is generally protein s and Table 2 provides a hig h gell strength, viscosity, concentrated by ultra-filtration and/ compariso n with some common aeration, water binding, or or spray dried if it is required in protei n isolates. solubility are crucial. the form of a dry powder. Some of the purification methods used Since Bipro's large scale reduc e the functional ability of the commercial launch in 1985, it has Table 1: Some typical functional properties of food BI du e to the heat and pressures found rapid acceptance among food proteins used . an d nutritional companies. For Functional property Example of food system example, its proprietary Bipro is the first generation of Solubility Beverages applications include beverages, Water binding Sausages uniqu e dairy ingredients that are Bread and cakes frozen desserts, sports supplements, pur e natural proteins. The major Gelation Cheese dairy proteins constituting Bipro salad dressings and meat products. Viscosity Gravies are β-lactoglobulin and Othe r inherent advantages of Bipro Sauces are that it is 'natural', contains α-lactoalbumin. Foaming Whipped toppings fewer calories and a reduced and desserts Th e proteins are extracted from sodiu m content. the whey by the process of ion- Table 2: Sources and functions of some protein exchange. This is a uniqu e process It can therefore be seen that BI in that the proteins are extracted hav e a useful role to play in the Bio-Isolates Food system mor e gently, that is at a lower manufactur e of man y types of food Soya protein from soya beans, Meat desire d by today's discerning T.V.P. Tofu, soya milk products consumer . The more purified BI Bread Dietary such as Bipro and surimi enhance supplements Table 3: Some examples of whey usage man y of the functional properties Black pudding Blood proteins from pig Type of whey Application necessary during the manufacture blood Weaning foods Sweet whey powder Protein supplemented foods, of such foods. These purified food for cattle e.g. sports supplements, component s will also enhance new Alginates from seaweed Soups ice cream, candy, meat produc t development. Furthermore, Desserts products Sauces whe n BI are extracted from waste Extraction of lactose, Acid whey powder Surimi from fish Crab sticks material, for example, chitin from conversion to alcohol Chitin from shellfish Dips praw n shells, or Bipro from whey, a Condensed whey Single cell protein production Snacks relatively more environment Vinegar production Meat loaves friendly technology is possible. Delactosed powder Syrups, lactic acid January/February 1991 5
Nutrition & Food Science – Emerald Publishing
Published: Jan 1, 1991
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