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Aviation Electronics

Aviation Electronics receiver unit, an aerial system and a tracker, which provides the doppler velocity information. This is fed to meter displays and to a digital navigation computer. The aerial system used in the AD580 is afixed planar Details of Electrical and Electronic Apparatus with Applications in the array incorporating separate transmit and receive waveguide systems for three narrow-angle con­ Maintenance and Operation of Aircraft, Missiles and Space Vehicles tinuous wave beams. The fixed aerial has been adop­ ted for this equipment, since a helicopter has a high VIDICON CAMERA CHANNEL NEW FORM OF AIRCRAFT LIGHTING rate of change of velocity in all three dimensions, D. Napier & Son Ltd. have announced that their Details of a completely new, solid state, miniature which is easier to follow with a computer than by Luton Division will shortly begin the manufacture of vidicon television camera channel have been announ­ moving the aerial. In addition, the direction of flight Sicrraglo Electroluminescent lamps. This new form of ced by the Closed Circuit Television Division of the of a helicopter can vary throughout 360 deg. and it is lighting for aircraft and other switch panels gives Marconi Company. This 321 Scries camera channel far more logical to resolve the components of hori­ improved readability, saves weight, and is simpler to has been specifically designed for the highly specia­ zontal motion in two directions than to attempt to install than current methods. lized requirements of aircraft, marine, military and follow changes in direction with a moving aerial. Napier Sicrraglo electroluminescence represents an heavy industrial applications where there is a growing Mechanical design and installation arc also simpler important advance in the effective low intensity area need for a fully automatic equipment able to give with a fixed aerial, and the reliability is high. By using extremely reliable operation under the most arduous lighting of all types of aircraft instrument and switch planar arrays, the aerial beam dimensions can be panels, and a large variety of displays, signs and read­ environmental conditions and to withstand con­ accurately defined without flight calibration. out uses. It provides a uniform light area by directly siderable vibration and mechanical shock in normal The transmitter consists of a 100 mw, low power, converting electrical energy into cold light, and is operation. low voltage ruggedized klystron operating at 8,800 specified for a number of U.K. and European civil Completely automatic in operation, the only control Mc/s and with the output shared between the three and military aircraft. in the entire channel which is provided for regular use transmitter ports. This eliminates time cycling switches Napier Sierraglo is a development by the Sierracin is a single 'on'/'off' switch. The automatic sensitivity on the aerial. The klystron is held on the peak of its Corporation of Los Angeles, California, U.S.A. from circuits in the camera enable it to accept rapid changes mode by an automatic modc-ccntcring circuit and whom D. Napier & Son Ltd. hold exclusive manu­ in scene illumination over an extreme range, with no automatic frequency control is incorporated. The facturing and sales rights in the U.K., Ireland and perceptible change in picture, while 'black level' is also transmitter and local oscillator kylstrons are mounted Western Europe. controlled automatically over its wide environmental on the aerial. An a.c. electrical power supply is used to energize range. The receiver contains three independent super­ the panels which are characterized by low current It will operate from a mains supply or from a light­ heterodyne channels for the three received beams. consumption and long working life, with complete weight battery and all conventional scanning standards The intermediate frequency is 10 Mc/s, and the overall elimination of sudden burn-out associated with can be provided. A wide range of accessories is noise factor, 12 dB, i.e. considerably better than with incandescent methods of lighting. Because of the available, including camera housings, zoom lenses and a direct crystal-audio receiver. Outputs correspond­ extremely high degree of uniformity of brightness remotely controlled pan and tilt heads. ing to the sine and cosine of each dopplcr frequency arc distribution, this new form of lighting is a distinct The 321 Scries camera channel consists basically passed to the tracker while range is measured down advantage to the flying crew. The electroluminescent of a camera and a control unit, connected by a light­ one of the beams by phase comparison of a modula­ panel is a lamp in its entirety and is a light weight thin weight multicore cable. The control unit can be tion signal applied to this beam. This range is then plastic sandwich construction in which phosphorescent supplied in a number of forms for different applica­ resolved through the beam depression angle and the material placed between two electrical conductors tions, and an extensive range of accessories is avail­ aircraft pitch and roll angles to give an absolute glows when an alternating current is applied. This able. Provision has been made for an intercom line measurement of height. method eliminates the necessity of edge lit instru­ between the camera and control unit. The tracker system accepts the sine and cosine ment panels, with consequent saving in complication Printed wiring is employed throughout the equip­ dopplcr frequency spectrum from the transmitter/ and weight in terms of wiring, bulbs and fittings. ment. A high quality fibrcglass board with excellent receiver and produces discrete frequencies represent­ Napier Sierracote, the transparent electrically dielectric and mechanical properties is used, allowing ing the velocity co-ordinates of the aircraft move­ conductive coating used in Sicrraglo lamps, has the components to be replaced without displacing the ment. The tracker automatically searches for and high light transmittence and electrical conductance copper laminate. follows the doppler frequency signals and will switch necessary for efficient electroluminescent operation. The camera itself is contained in a cylindrical the equipment of a 'Memory' condition if the dopplcr The deposition of this transparent coating has achieved stainless steel case, this having been found to be the information fails for any reason. The outputs from a significant advance in the size machineability, and most suitable shape for an extremely wide range of the tracker consist of speeds forward, sideways and environmental stability of plastic elcctroluminsccnt different applications. This case is completely water­ perpendicular to the aerial plane. These outputs-are lamps. These features render Napier Sicrraglo suitable tight and the camera will operate at normal efficiency fed, in the form of pulse trains, to the stabilization for a wide range of applications where relatively low up to 5 feet under water with no additional protection system, and analogue outputs arc available to feed intensity area light sources arc required. A range of other than a lens cover. The automatic sensitivity meter displays of ground speed, drift angle, lateral colours is available including aviation red, green, control provided in the electronic circuitry of the velocity and height. white, blue, yellow, etc. channel will accommodate scene illumination between The AD580 also incorporates a digital navigation 2 and 2,000 ft.-lambcrts, but with the addition of a computer, while the outputs from the tracker unit are DOPPLER VELOCITY SENSOR FOR neutral density filter unit, which can be contained suitable for feeding other forms of digital computers. HELICOPTERS within the camera casing, this range can be extended to In the AD580, the horizontal velocities arc resolved Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Co. Ltd. have an­ cover 2 to 2,000,000 ft.-lambcrts. In addition, the through the heading angle, and integrated to display nounced that with the successful completion of flight camera will operate over a temperature range of present position in grid co-ordinates on 4-digit trials of their AD580 dopplcr velocity sensor, designed minus 20 to plus 60 deg. C. Remote focusing can also counters, each counter being capable of rapid and for helicopters, production planning is now underway. be provided if required, the mechanism again being accurate resetting by electrical means. The Company's extensive experience gained in the accommodated within the basic camera casing. Since the heading reference is a major limitation in production of pulse and frequency modulated C.W. the navigational accuracy of the system as a whole, An important feature of this new camera is the doppler navigators has been used in the design of this an optical shaft encoder has been developed to pro­ 'High Flux' vidicon tube operation. Both the magnetic new transistorized continuous wave equipment to duce a parallel read-out of sine, cosine and sign of the and electrostatic focusing fluxes arc approximately provide an extremely accurate and reliable, self- heading angle to an accuracy of one part in 29 in twice those normally employed, and the sharpness of contained navigation system. reflected binary code. beam focus and consequently the horizontal and This new doppler equipment provides the accurate If it becomes necessary to navigate by normal air vertical resolution is greatly improved. Signal to measurements of positive and negative, horizontal data, true air speed, wind speed and wind direction noise ratio is also better since less aperture correction and vertical velocities which are essential for hover may be fed into the computer manually by controls is required. Provision is made for accepting either control, and at the same time provides readings of on the front panel. There is also a manual control the new 5J in. vidicon tube, or the standard 61 in. type. ground speed, drift angle and aircraft height. The for applying a correction for water surface movement Three types of camera control unit are available in outputs are suitable for direct couplnig to an auto­ when navigating over sea. Provision is made in the the 321 Scries. pilot or auto-stabilizer, and will form the basis for a computer for driving a 'plotting board' type of display Type V3215 is a free standing and airtight unit with complete helicopter flying control system in all if required. provision for forced ventilation. All circuit modules weathers. arc clamped to the frame to ensure complete reliability The equipment has an operating height range of A digital navigation computer which forms part of under vibration and shock conditions. zero to 10,000 ft. over any sea where wind speed is the system provides a display of 'present position' in greater than 2 knots, an angle of bank range of Type V32I6 is a rackmounted unit designed to fit a grid co-ordinates, given a suitable heading reference. = ±30 deg., a pitch angle range of ± 20 deg. and a standard 19 in. rack. Book type circuit modules are This computer can also be used to drive a plotting speed range forwards of minus 50 to plus 250 knots, employed for maximum accessibility and the entire board, or similar display. sideways ±100 knots, and vertically ±2,000 ft./min. unit is built to a high standard of engineering. The equipment was developed in co-operation with Type V3217 is a rack mounted unit in a Short 3/4 the Royal Radar Establishment, to meet a stringent MICRO-MINIATURE VOLTAGE-CONTROLLED ATR case designed for airborne use. The unit is military specification. OSCILLATOR basically similar to type V3215 but is engineered to The Marconi AD580 Doppler Sensor has been A voltage-controlled subcarricr oscillator, produced the ARINC specification for aircraft television specifically designed to satisfy the particular require­ by Vector Manufacturing Co. Inc. of Southampton, equipment, Characteristic No. 404. ments of helicopters. Extremely stable and accurate Pennsylvania, U.S.A., and marketed in the U.K. by In all of these units, the controls are mounted under measurements of velocity in three dimensions arc Aerodata Ltd., 135 Notting Hill Gate, London, VV.l 1, a protective cover on the front panel of the control is claimed to be the smallest unit of this type in pro­ available both in magnitude and direction, while unit, with the single exception of the 'on'/'off' switch. duction in the Western World. The oscillator has small changes in velocity arc detected over 70 times No adjustment of these controls is necessary except been designed to convert d.c. voltages into frequency faster than in previous equipments. This is of par­ on installation and when the vidicon tube is replaced. modulated subcarricr signals, by which means a fre­ ticular importance at low speeds for stabilization quency multiplex of information can be built up. A Synchronizing pulses for the time base circuits can control during hover. The equipment also provides mixer amplifier of identical size has been developed be provided internally or externally, either to CCIR an independent measurement of aircraft height. for use with the oscillator. standards, or with random interlace. The equipment consists basically of a transmitter/ October 1963 311 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology Emerald Publishing

Aviation Electronics

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology , Volume 35 (10): 1 – Oct 1, 1963

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Publisher
Emerald Publishing
Copyright
Copyright © Emerald Group Publishing Limited
ISSN
0002-2667
DOI
10.1108/eb033797
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Abstract

receiver unit, an aerial system and a tracker, which provides the doppler velocity information. This is fed to meter displays and to a digital navigation computer. The aerial system used in the AD580 is afixed planar Details of Electrical and Electronic Apparatus with Applications in the array incorporating separate transmit and receive waveguide systems for three narrow-angle con­ Maintenance and Operation of Aircraft, Missiles and Space Vehicles tinuous wave beams. The fixed aerial has been adop­ ted for this equipment, since a helicopter has a high VIDICON CAMERA CHANNEL NEW FORM OF AIRCRAFT LIGHTING rate of change of velocity in all three dimensions, D. Napier & Son Ltd. have announced that their Details of a completely new, solid state, miniature which is easier to follow with a computer than by Luton Division will shortly begin the manufacture of vidicon television camera channel have been announ­ moving the aerial. In addition, the direction of flight Sicrraglo Electroluminescent lamps. This new form of ced by the Closed Circuit Television Division of the of a helicopter can vary throughout 360 deg. and it is lighting for aircraft and other switch panels gives Marconi Company. This 321 Scries camera channel far more logical to resolve the components of hori­ improved readability, saves weight, and is simpler to has been specifically designed for the highly specia­ zontal motion in two directions than to attempt to install than current methods. lized requirements of aircraft, marine, military and follow changes in direction with a moving aerial. Napier Sicrraglo electroluminescence represents an heavy industrial applications where there is a growing Mechanical design and installation arc also simpler important advance in the effective low intensity area need for a fully automatic equipment able to give with a fixed aerial, and the reliability is high. By using extremely reliable operation under the most arduous lighting of all types of aircraft instrument and switch planar arrays, the aerial beam dimensions can be panels, and a large variety of displays, signs and read­ environmental conditions and to withstand con­ accurately defined without flight calibration. out uses. It provides a uniform light area by directly siderable vibration and mechanical shock in normal The transmitter consists of a 100 mw, low power, converting electrical energy into cold light, and is operation. low voltage ruggedized klystron operating at 8,800 specified for a number of U.K. and European civil Completely automatic in operation, the only control Mc/s and with the output shared between the three and military aircraft. in the entire channel which is provided for regular use transmitter ports. This eliminates time cycling switches Napier Sierraglo is a development by the Sierracin is a single 'on'/'off' switch. The automatic sensitivity on the aerial. The klystron is held on the peak of its Corporation of Los Angeles, California, U.S.A. from circuits in the camera enable it to accept rapid changes mode by an automatic modc-ccntcring circuit and whom D. Napier & Son Ltd. hold exclusive manu­ in scene illumination over an extreme range, with no automatic frequency control is incorporated. The facturing and sales rights in the U.K., Ireland and perceptible change in picture, while 'black level' is also transmitter and local oscillator kylstrons are mounted Western Europe. controlled automatically over its wide environmental on the aerial. An a.c. electrical power supply is used to energize range. The receiver contains three independent super­ the panels which are characterized by low current It will operate from a mains supply or from a light­ heterodyne channels for the three received beams. consumption and long working life, with complete weight battery and all conventional scanning standards The intermediate frequency is 10 Mc/s, and the overall elimination of sudden burn-out associated with can be provided. A wide range of accessories is noise factor, 12 dB, i.e. considerably better than with incandescent methods of lighting. Because of the available, including camera housings, zoom lenses and a direct crystal-audio receiver. Outputs correspond­ extremely high degree of uniformity of brightness remotely controlled pan and tilt heads. ing to the sine and cosine of each dopplcr frequency arc distribution, this new form of lighting is a distinct The 321 Scries camera channel consists basically passed to the tracker while range is measured down advantage to the flying crew. The electroluminescent of a camera and a control unit, connected by a light­ one of the beams by phase comparison of a modula­ panel is a lamp in its entirety and is a light weight thin weight multicore cable. The control unit can be tion signal applied to this beam. This range is then plastic sandwich construction in which phosphorescent supplied in a number of forms for different applica­ resolved through the beam depression angle and the material placed between two electrical conductors tions, and an extensive range of accessories is avail­ aircraft pitch and roll angles to give an absolute glows when an alternating current is applied. This able. Provision has been made for an intercom line measurement of height. method eliminates the necessity of edge lit instru­ between the camera and control unit. The tracker system accepts the sine and cosine ment panels, with consequent saving in complication Printed wiring is employed throughout the equip­ dopplcr frequency spectrum from the transmitter/ and weight in terms of wiring, bulbs and fittings. ment. A high quality fibrcglass board with excellent receiver and produces discrete frequencies represent­ Napier Sierracote, the transparent electrically dielectric and mechanical properties is used, allowing ing the velocity co-ordinates of the aircraft move­ conductive coating used in Sicrraglo lamps, has the components to be replaced without displacing the ment. The tracker automatically searches for and high light transmittence and electrical conductance copper laminate. follows the doppler frequency signals and will switch necessary for efficient electroluminescent operation. The camera itself is contained in a cylindrical the equipment of a 'Memory' condition if the dopplcr The deposition of this transparent coating has achieved stainless steel case, this having been found to be the information fails for any reason. The outputs from a significant advance in the size machineability, and most suitable shape for an extremely wide range of the tracker consist of speeds forward, sideways and environmental stability of plastic elcctroluminsccnt different applications. This case is completely water­ perpendicular to the aerial plane. These outputs-are lamps. These features render Napier Sicrraglo suitable tight and the camera will operate at normal efficiency fed, in the form of pulse trains, to the stabilization for a wide range of applications where relatively low up to 5 feet under water with no additional protection system, and analogue outputs arc available to feed intensity area light sources arc required. A range of other than a lens cover. The automatic sensitivity meter displays of ground speed, drift angle, lateral colours is available including aviation red, green, control provided in the electronic circuitry of the velocity and height. white, blue, yellow, etc. channel will accommodate scene illumination between The AD580 also incorporates a digital navigation 2 and 2,000 ft.-lambcrts, but with the addition of a computer, while the outputs from the tracker unit are DOPPLER VELOCITY SENSOR FOR neutral density filter unit, which can be contained suitable for feeding other forms of digital computers. HELICOPTERS within the camera casing, this range can be extended to In the AD580, the horizontal velocities arc resolved Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Co. Ltd. have an­ cover 2 to 2,000,000 ft.-lambcrts. In addition, the through the heading angle, and integrated to display nounced that with the successful completion of flight camera will operate over a temperature range of present position in grid co-ordinates on 4-digit trials of their AD580 dopplcr velocity sensor, designed minus 20 to plus 60 deg. C. Remote focusing can also counters, each counter being capable of rapid and for helicopters, production planning is now underway. be provided if required, the mechanism again being accurate resetting by electrical means. The Company's extensive experience gained in the accommodated within the basic camera casing. Since the heading reference is a major limitation in production of pulse and frequency modulated C.W. the navigational accuracy of the system as a whole, An important feature of this new camera is the doppler navigators has been used in the design of this an optical shaft encoder has been developed to pro­ 'High Flux' vidicon tube operation. Both the magnetic new transistorized continuous wave equipment to duce a parallel read-out of sine, cosine and sign of the and electrostatic focusing fluxes arc approximately provide an extremely accurate and reliable, self- heading angle to an accuracy of one part in 29 in twice those normally employed, and the sharpness of contained navigation system. reflected binary code. beam focus and consequently the horizontal and This new doppler equipment provides the accurate If it becomes necessary to navigate by normal air vertical resolution is greatly improved. Signal to measurements of positive and negative, horizontal data, true air speed, wind speed and wind direction noise ratio is also better since less aperture correction and vertical velocities which are essential for hover may be fed into the computer manually by controls is required. Provision is made for accepting either control, and at the same time provides readings of on the front panel. There is also a manual control the new 5J in. vidicon tube, or the standard 61 in. type. ground speed, drift angle and aircraft height. The for applying a correction for water surface movement Three types of camera control unit are available in outputs are suitable for direct couplnig to an auto­ when navigating over sea. Provision is made in the the 321 Scries. pilot or auto-stabilizer, and will form the basis for a computer for driving a 'plotting board' type of display Type V3215 is a free standing and airtight unit with complete helicopter flying control system in all if required. provision for forced ventilation. All circuit modules weathers. arc clamped to the frame to ensure complete reliability The equipment has an operating height range of A digital navigation computer which forms part of under vibration and shock conditions. zero to 10,000 ft. over any sea where wind speed is the system provides a display of 'present position' in greater than 2 knots, an angle of bank range of Type V32I6 is a rackmounted unit designed to fit a grid co-ordinates, given a suitable heading reference. = ±30 deg., a pitch angle range of ± 20 deg. and a standard 19 in. rack. Book type circuit modules are This computer can also be used to drive a plotting speed range forwards of minus 50 to plus 250 knots, employed for maximum accessibility and the entire board, or similar display. sideways ±100 knots, and vertically ±2,000 ft./min. unit is built to a high standard of engineering. The equipment was developed in co-operation with Type V3217 is a rack mounted unit in a Short 3/4 the Royal Radar Establishment, to meet a stringent MICRO-MINIATURE VOLTAGE-CONTROLLED ATR case designed for airborne use. The unit is military specification. OSCILLATOR basically similar to type V3215 but is engineered to The Marconi AD580 Doppler Sensor has been A voltage-controlled subcarricr oscillator, produced the ARINC specification for aircraft television specifically designed to satisfy the particular require­ by Vector Manufacturing Co. Inc. of Southampton, equipment, Characteristic No. 404. ments of helicopters. Extremely stable and accurate Pennsylvania, U.S.A., and marketed in the U.K. by In all of these units, the controls are mounted under measurements of velocity in three dimensions arc Aerodata Ltd., 135 Notting Hill Gate, London, VV.l 1, a protective cover on the front panel of the control is claimed to be the smallest unit of this type in pro­ available both in magnitude and direction, while unit, with the single exception of the 'on'/'off' switch. duction in the Western World. The oscillator has small changes in velocity arc detected over 70 times No adjustment of these controls is necessary except been designed to convert d.c. voltages into frequency faster than in previous equipments. This is of par­ on installation and when the vidicon tube is replaced. modulated subcarricr signals, by which means a fre­ ticular importance at low speeds for stabilization quency multiplex of information can be built up. A Synchronizing pulses for the time base circuits can control during hover. The equipment also provides mixer amplifier of identical size has been developed be provided internally or externally, either to CCIR an independent measurement of aircraft height. for use with the oscillator. standards, or with random interlace. The equipment consists basically of a transmitter/ October 1963 311

Journal

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace TechnologyEmerald Publishing

Published: Oct 1, 1963

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