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Auxiliary Equipment

Auxiliary Equipment Details of Some Components Used for Subsidiary Services in Aircraft Lockheed have adhered to the policy of making this 'Hallprene' Fluid Seal purely a pumping unit, unencumbered with off-loading The 'Hallprcne' patent fluid seal, illustrated in devices or other features which could impair efficiency FIG. 1, has been devised to overcome certain dis­ and simplicity. The unit, cleared for standard speeds advantages of the 'U' type of packing ring, such as and pressures, and weighing some 14 lb. is quite cool wear at the heel due to fluid pressure distortion of the when delivering five gallons per minute under full packing and the inwards collapse of the scaling lips. load. The pump is now going into full production. The seal is of synthetic rubber-impregnated fabric It was exhibited at the S.B.A.C. Exhibition on the in the form of a 'U' ring and filled with a soft and stand of the manufacturers, The Lockheed Hydraulic resilient synthetic rubber, the whole bonded together; Brake Co. Ltd. of Leamington Spa. (Stand 35.) the composition is impervious to the action of hydraulic of its applications is the ignition of the Liquid Fuel fluids up to a temperature of 250 dcg. F. and is Starter described above. efficient for use against air. For this purpose, the system possesses several In use the soft synthetic rubber is deformed by fluid advantages. Among them, is the fact that, operating pressure causing the scaling surface of the fabric-im­ within the voltage range 18-24 volts D.C., it is virtually pregnated side walls to expand. The soft radiused face instantaneous in action, the time delay between of this type of seal must be towards the pressure when energization and production of the first spark being fitted. of the order of 10 milliseconds. Discharging even The seal is moulded with slightly divergent walls through caked or flooded plugs of the gapped type, and because the filling is resilient the walls of the and giving 1-5 joules of energy per spark, its repetition packing ring will not tend to collapse and once put rate of 50 p.s. provides what is, to all intents and under pressure will maintain a pressure and retain a purposes, a continuous action. A further advantage seal even though the fluid pressure falls to zero. ..is that the energy is not stored at lethal voltage level. The construction of the seal is such that the sealing The system is now being developed for many other lips of the 'U' ring are protected against damage by applications including the re-lighting of gas turbines being bonded to the resilient filling. The rounded ex­ at altitude, and various purposes involving the igni­ posed surface of this filling helps to ensure that when tion of crude oil. in a stuffing box the fluid pressure can readily reach all parts of the exposed surface. This seal is claimed to be particularly suitable for Liquid Fuel Starter use with shafts which are slightly out of alignment, or MONTH IN THE PATENT OFFICE in hydraulic cylinders which have become oval with Among examples of aircraft equipment exhi­ {Concluded from opposite page) wear. bited on the stands (Nos. 14 and 15) of The Plessey The manufacturers are Hall & Hall Ltd., Oldficld Group of Companies at the S.B.A.C. Exhibition was of the skin are such that under any condition of load­ Works, Hampton, Middlesex. the Liquid Fuel Starter for Turbine Engines, type ing the outer skin 7 is loaded lightly relatively to the LTSA 70. inner skin 3 and the cell-forming lattice 4. The outer In the cartridge type starter, design and dimensions porous skin may be made from the material forming are closely related to the volume of the cordite charge the subject of specification 687,724. which it is required to house. This, in turn, is propor­ 687,724. Porous sheet material. M. R. Head. tional to the polar moment of inertia of the engine. Application, April 6, 1950. Such a starter is therefore inflexible in application. A porous sheet material, particularly applicable to As more powerful engines are developed, the size of the surfaces of aerofoils subjected to distributed the cordite charge would constitute a limiting factor in boundary layer suction, consists of a metallic gauze the design of future starters. on which metal has been deposited elcctrolytically, Both limitations can be overcome by the use of a and which has then been subjected to cold rolling. liquid propellent. Flexibility is achieved by variation Examples are a standard phosphor-bronze gauze of of the time of operation and/or the quantity of fuel. 120 meshes per linear inch plated with nickel to a The question of charge size docs not arise, the propel­ thickness of 6 oz. per square foot and reduced by lent being stored in a tank. rolling to a thickness of eleven thousandths of an inch, The present exhibit, designed for engines requiring and a similar gauze of 240 meshes per inch plated with an average starter power of 70 H.P., is the first unit of nickel to a thickness of 3½ oz. per square foot and this type to have completed bench type approval reduced to a thickness of five thousandths of an inch. tests to Ministry of Supply Specification. The fuel used is Iso-Propyl Nitrate. A mono-fuel, 688,011. Controlling jet-propelled aircraft. A. it docs not, under suitable conditions, require air or Wcnger. Application June 27, 1951. other oxidants. The simplest and lightest systems of A control device for a jet-propelled aircraft consists pumping and control can therefore be used. of an arcuate member 4 integral with a sleeve 3 cap­ Lockheed Hydraulic Pump Operation is by push-button from the cockpit, the able of being moved axially by a rod 7 to intercept the cycle being automatically controlled by a special With the advent of larger and faster aircraft there jet from the nozzle 2 to a greater or lesser extent, and control panel. has been a natural tendency to turn to hydraulics to thus vary the control force, and also capable of rota­ Air is first supplied from the pumping unit to the operate the additional or augmented services. Antici­ tion about the nozzle axis by gearing 8, 9 to vary the combustion chamber for scavenging purposes. Fuel pating this trend, Lockheed have developed a pump plane of action of the control force. The rod 7 is is then delivered and the resulting air/fuel mixture is having twice the capacity of their Mark 7. actuated by fore-and-aft movement of the pilot's con­ ignited from sparking plugs energized by a special The new pump, styled the Mark 8, employs the trol column, and the gearing 8, 9 by a steering wheel high frequency ignition unit, described below. same pumping elements and the fourteen cylinders are on the column or by transverse movement of the arranged in two banks in such a manner that with the column. The reaction member 4 may be pivoted to the Napicr/Plcsscy H.F. Ignition System balanced two throw eccentric shaft the delivery from sleeve 3 and arranged so that axial movement of the the pump is notably free from the pressure pulse which This system has been developed by D. Napier latter varies the angular setting of the member 4 in has proved objectionable on some pumps. Limited and The Plessey Company Limited, and one relation to the nozzle axis and thus the extent of its penetration into the jet. 326 Aircraft Engineering http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology Emerald Publishing

Auxiliary Equipment

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology , Volume 25 (10): 1 – Oct 1, 1953

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Publisher
Emerald Publishing
Copyright
Copyright © Emerald Group Publishing Limited
ISSN
0002-2667
DOI
10.1108/eb032351
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Details of Some Components Used for Subsidiary Services in Aircraft Lockheed have adhered to the policy of making this 'Hallprene' Fluid Seal purely a pumping unit, unencumbered with off-loading The 'Hallprcne' patent fluid seal, illustrated in devices or other features which could impair efficiency FIG. 1, has been devised to overcome certain dis­ and simplicity. The unit, cleared for standard speeds advantages of the 'U' type of packing ring, such as and pressures, and weighing some 14 lb. is quite cool wear at the heel due to fluid pressure distortion of the when delivering five gallons per minute under full packing and the inwards collapse of the scaling lips. load. The pump is now going into full production. The seal is of synthetic rubber-impregnated fabric It was exhibited at the S.B.A.C. Exhibition on the in the form of a 'U' ring and filled with a soft and stand of the manufacturers, The Lockheed Hydraulic resilient synthetic rubber, the whole bonded together; Brake Co. Ltd. of Leamington Spa. (Stand 35.) the composition is impervious to the action of hydraulic of its applications is the ignition of the Liquid Fuel fluids up to a temperature of 250 dcg. F. and is Starter described above. efficient for use against air. For this purpose, the system possesses several In use the soft synthetic rubber is deformed by fluid advantages. Among them, is the fact that, operating pressure causing the scaling surface of the fabric-im­ within the voltage range 18-24 volts D.C., it is virtually pregnated side walls to expand. The soft radiused face instantaneous in action, the time delay between of this type of seal must be towards the pressure when energization and production of the first spark being fitted. of the order of 10 milliseconds. Discharging even The seal is moulded with slightly divergent walls through caked or flooded plugs of the gapped type, and because the filling is resilient the walls of the and giving 1-5 joules of energy per spark, its repetition packing ring will not tend to collapse and once put rate of 50 p.s. provides what is, to all intents and under pressure will maintain a pressure and retain a purposes, a continuous action. A further advantage seal even though the fluid pressure falls to zero. ..is that the energy is not stored at lethal voltage level. The construction of the seal is such that the sealing The system is now being developed for many other lips of the 'U' ring are protected against damage by applications including the re-lighting of gas turbines being bonded to the resilient filling. The rounded ex­ at altitude, and various purposes involving the igni­ posed surface of this filling helps to ensure that when tion of crude oil. in a stuffing box the fluid pressure can readily reach all parts of the exposed surface. This seal is claimed to be particularly suitable for Liquid Fuel Starter use with shafts which are slightly out of alignment, or MONTH IN THE PATENT OFFICE in hydraulic cylinders which have become oval with Among examples of aircraft equipment exhi­ {Concluded from opposite page) wear. bited on the stands (Nos. 14 and 15) of The Plessey The manufacturers are Hall & Hall Ltd., Oldficld Group of Companies at the S.B.A.C. Exhibition was of the skin are such that under any condition of load­ Works, Hampton, Middlesex. the Liquid Fuel Starter for Turbine Engines, type ing the outer skin 7 is loaded lightly relatively to the LTSA 70. inner skin 3 and the cell-forming lattice 4. The outer In the cartridge type starter, design and dimensions porous skin may be made from the material forming are closely related to the volume of the cordite charge the subject of specification 687,724. which it is required to house. This, in turn, is propor­ 687,724. Porous sheet material. M. R. Head. tional to the polar moment of inertia of the engine. Application, April 6, 1950. Such a starter is therefore inflexible in application. A porous sheet material, particularly applicable to As more powerful engines are developed, the size of the surfaces of aerofoils subjected to distributed the cordite charge would constitute a limiting factor in boundary layer suction, consists of a metallic gauze the design of future starters. on which metal has been deposited elcctrolytically, Both limitations can be overcome by the use of a and which has then been subjected to cold rolling. liquid propellent. Flexibility is achieved by variation Examples are a standard phosphor-bronze gauze of of the time of operation and/or the quantity of fuel. 120 meshes per linear inch plated with nickel to a The question of charge size docs not arise, the propel­ thickness of 6 oz. per square foot and reduced by lent being stored in a tank. rolling to a thickness of eleven thousandths of an inch, The present exhibit, designed for engines requiring and a similar gauze of 240 meshes per inch plated with an average starter power of 70 H.P., is the first unit of nickel to a thickness of 3½ oz. per square foot and this type to have completed bench type approval reduced to a thickness of five thousandths of an inch. tests to Ministry of Supply Specification. The fuel used is Iso-Propyl Nitrate. A mono-fuel, 688,011. Controlling jet-propelled aircraft. A. it docs not, under suitable conditions, require air or Wcnger. Application June 27, 1951. other oxidants. The simplest and lightest systems of A control device for a jet-propelled aircraft consists pumping and control can therefore be used. of an arcuate member 4 integral with a sleeve 3 cap­ Lockheed Hydraulic Pump Operation is by push-button from the cockpit, the able of being moved axially by a rod 7 to intercept the cycle being automatically controlled by a special With the advent of larger and faster aircraft there jet from the nozzle 2 to a greater or lesser extent, and control panel. has been a natural tendency to turn to hydraulics to thus vary the control force, and also capable of rota­ Air is first supplied from the pumping unit to the operate the additional or augmented services. Antici­ tion about the nozzle axis by gearing 8, 9 to vary the combustion chamber for scavenging purposes. Fuel pating this trend, Lockheed have developed a pump plane of action of the control force. The rod 7 is is then delivered and the resulting air/fuel mixture is having twice the capacity of their Mark 7. actuated by fore-and-aft movement of the pilot's con­ ignited from sparking plugs energized by a special The new pump, styled the Mark 8, employs the trol column, and the gearing 8, 9 by a steering wheel high frequency ignition unit, described below. same pumping elements and the fourteen cylinders are on the column or by transverse movement of the arranged in two banks in such a manner that with the column. The reaction member 4 may be pivoted to the Napicr/Plcsscy H.F. Ignition System balanced two throw eccentric shaft the delivery from sleeve 3 and arranged so that axial movement of the the pump is notably free from the pressure pulse which This system has been developed by D. Napier latter varies the angular setting of the member 4 in has proved objectionable on some pumps. Limited and The Plessey Company Limited, and one relation to the nozzle axis and thus the extent of its penetration into the jet. 326 Aircraft Engineering

Journal

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace TechnologyEmerald Publishing

Published: Oct 1, 1953

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