Purpose The purpose of this paper is to trace the impact that the ecological approach has in international development programs in both the USA and Europe. It discusses the applications of sustainability by international donor agencies among bilateral and multilateral organizations in developing economies. It outlines the influence of sustainability in the US Federal Government agencies to protect and maintain environmentallybased development programs.Designmethodologyapproach The paper compares industrial ecology and ecological anthropology approaches to sustainability development. It discusses their policy implications for international development assistance programs. It describes how anthropological and sociological approaches to sustainability have impacted the development policies and programs of bilateral and multilateral organizations, as well as those of multinational corporations.Findings There are common sustainability trends among the four competing donor organizations in approaching sustainability development by bilateral and multilateral international development organizations. These organizations the United States Agency for International Development USAID, the World Bank, the United Nations and its affiliated Organizations, and the US Federal government agencies, for example, the Environmental Protection Agency have shaped and influenced the policies and programs of sustainability development in business organizations and in developing economies.Originalityvalue Sustainability has been a subject of interest in international development assistance programs in both bilateral and multilateral organizations since the 1970s. Over time, the subject of sustainability received prominence in the developed world. It can be argued that sustainability has its roots in the developing economy and has been adaptedmodified to meet the environmental and natural resources conservation and management policies of the developed economies.
World Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Sustainable Development – Emerald Publishing
Published: Jan 1, 2012
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