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AEROENGINE DEVELOPMENT

AEROENGINE DEVELOPMENT July, 1940 AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING 193 The advantages from every point of view are enormous. It enables the engine designer to run the engine complete with its installation Aircraft Engineering on a test rig and hand it over in confidence that it will function satisfactorily. It saves weeks and weeks of wearisome develop­ Devoted to the Science and Practice of Aeronaotics ment work on the installation of an engine in a prototype aeroplane, an d to Allied and Subsidiary Branches of which has in the past frequently involved valuable employees being th e Engineering Industry away from the engine contractor's works for long periods at a time. What it must mean in benefit to the military effort — Editor: Lieut.-Col. W. Lockwood Marsh, F.R.Ae.S., M.S.A.E., F.I.Ae.S. in saving in time and labour as well in the reduction in stores to be carried—it is impossible to estimate. When peace comes, and Vol. XII, No. 137 July, 1940 civil flying becomes possible again, it will be of equal value to air transport operators. Not least of its interests is the possibility it opens up of direct comparison of the performance of an aero­ plane with different types of engine. This has been the dream of all aeroplane designers for years, and if it had been possible would H E principal feature of this month's issue is an extremely have ended many controversies and bitter arguments in the past. able paper covering a variety of aspects of the design and installation of aero-engines by two members of the staff of We do not remember ever reading a more thoroughly practical MESSRS. ROLLS ROYCE. This paper was read last year at the contribution to knowledge of the aero-engine designer's art, nor one World Automotive Engineering Congress of the Society of Auto­ which so bristles with material for comment. The authors' remarks motive Engineers in New York and we are indebted to the Society on the inverted engine are illuminating and make it likely that and the authors for permission to reproduce it here. It constitutes, this present fashion may be merely a passing phase. There certainly as is natural, to some extent a defence of the liquid—or, as the is a very widely spread misconception, as it appears, regarding the authors prefer to call it, the " indirectly "—cooled engine. In advantages of this cylinder arrangement for the betterment of the England this is, of course, hardly necessary since it has always pilot's view. been felt here that there is room for both types and that any On the more theoretical side, it is most interesting to have the advantages the one may have for some purposes is counter-balanced results of MESSRS. ROLLS ROYCE'S researches into bearing materials by those of the other for different uses and it has consistently been and details of the composition and physical properties of the the policy of the Air Ministry to encourage the development of aluminium-tin alloy now used by them for big-end bearings. The both. theory of the cause of the burning of exhaust valves and seats In view of various patent specifications, summaries of which are following the introduction of lead into fuels is another of the many to be found in the files of AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING, it is interesting interesting points in this most important lecture. The theory evolved to account for a somewhat recondite phenomenon certainly to find the representatives of this famous firm so emphatic in their adherence to the poppet valve for in-line engines and so confident sounds convincing, but in the discussion that took place when the of the continued future of trouble-free exhaust valves. They dis­ paper was read in America MR. S. D. HERON expressed some doubt close, we believe for the first time, the constitution and properties as to its validity (although it fitted in with the facts) on the ground of a new alloy which has been developed for valves—originally to that the phenomenon had been met with as long ago as 1922 with, of course, an unleaded fuel. So it may perhaps still be considered replace stellite as a coating, but later as the material from which the valves themselves are forged. It is interesting, also, to read " not proven." the reasons for using hollow-stemmed valves without recourse to hollow heads. This is in contrast to the practice of the Hispano- OUR SUPPLEMENT Suiza firm, the production of whose hollow-headed valves was described, it will be remembered, in these columns a year ago. IN PLACE of our usual data sheet we are issuing on a loose sheet Hollow heads have not the adherents in this country that they this month drawings issued by the Ministry of Information of the have elsewhere, and they certainly have the disadvantage of being four types of aeroplane commonly used by the German Luftwaffe very much more difficult to produce. as troop carriers. To these (which we are, by the way, reproducing approximately to scale) we have added a photograph of each, which should aid in identification, and also a series of sketches Interchangeability showing the appearance and equipment of parachute troops. Perhaps the most interesting section in the paper is that devoted Although the drawings and sketches have already been popu­ to the interchangeable power-plant. It will probably come as a larized through the daily press we feel that at this juncture it is surprise to those who were not aware of it how far development in impossible for them to have too wide a circulation. We do not this direction has gone in this country. It was the result of the doubt that a large number of our British readers are members of policy formulated by the Air Ministry that alternative power the Local Defence Volunteer organization and that they will units should be available for all new military aeroplane types— find it useful to have this information collected together and the corollary of which requirement was, in Great Britain, a demand available in a suitable form for posting on the walls of their quarters. for complete interchangeability between air and liquid cooled They can then spend some of the time when not on actual look-out engine units. By way of contrast, we publish in this issue an duty familiarizing themselves with their appearance. As we have article on the standardization of engine units as effected by the indicated at the foot of the sheet, there are a few other types of Junkers Company. We have had this article by us for some months aeroplane which may be adapted to this work — notably the large with a view to its publication at a suitable opportunity and can four-engined Junkers G.38 illustrated on page 106 of our April think of no better occasion than to let it appear contemporaneously issue this year (though the two or three machines of this type with MESSRS. HIVES and SMITH'S notes on the subject. The German available at the beginning of the war may now no longer exist) article is interesting in the detail which is given on the method of and the four-engined Heinkel He-116 illustrated in AIRCRAFT overcoming some of the plumbing problems, but sees no further ENGINEERING, January, 1938, page 17. As we have pointed out, than the interchangeability of engines of the same type. The watchers near the coast should keep their eyes open for the possibility of anything so drastic as exchanging—and within appearance of unfamiliar types of seaplane ; in which connexion 48 hours—a liquid for an air cooled engine, and vice versa, is not they may be fairly confident that any multi-engined twin-float envisaged. The fact that this has been achieved in the latest seaplanes they see will be German, as there are no Britisli machines British military types is now revealed in this paper. It is a most of this type. Chief among these is the large and rather clumsy- remarkable development for the encouragement of which the Air looking Blohm and Voss Ha. 139, the most noticeable feature of Ministry deserves as much credit as does the British engineer for which is the downward slope of the wing from the fuselage to the its achievement. A year or two ago such a thing would have inboard engine on each side. All of them are four-engined, except been considered utterly impracticable and it makes the German the Junkers Ju.52-3M which is illustrated on the sheet as a land- limited effort in the same direction look pedestrian in the extreme. plane. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology Emerald Publishing

AEROENGINE DEVELOPMENT

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology , Volume 12 (7): 1 – Jul 1, 1940

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Publisher
Emerald Publishing
Copyright
Copyright © Emerald Group Publishing Limited
ISSN
0002-2667
DOI
10.1108/eb030661
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

July, 1940 AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING 193 The advantages from every point of view are enormous. It enables the engine designer to run the engine complete with its installation Aircraft Engineering on a test rig and hand it over in confidence that it will function satisfactorily. It saves weeks and weeks of wearisome develop­ Devoted to the Science and Practice of Aeronaotics ment work on the installation of an engine in a prototype aeroplane, an d to Allied and Subsidiary Branches of which has in the past frequently involved valuable employees being th e Engineering Industry away from the engine contractor's works for long periods at a time. What it must mean in benefit to the military effort — Editor: Lieut.-Col. W. Lockwood Marsh, F.R.Ae.S., M.S.A.E., F.I.Ae.S. in saving in time and labour as well in the reduction in stores to be carried—it is impossible to estimate. When peace comes, and Vol. XII, No. 137 July, 1940 civil flying becomes possible again, it will be of equal value to air transport operators. Not least of its interests is the possibility it opens up of direct comparison of the performance of an aero­ plane with different types of engine. This has been the dream of all aeroplane designers for years, and if it had been possible would H E principal feature of this month's issue is an extremely have ended many controversies and bitter arguments in the past. able paper covering a variety of aspects of the design and installation of aero-engines by two members of the staff of We do not remember ever reading a more thoroughly practical MESSRS. ROLLS ROYCE. This paper was read last year at the contribution to knowledge of the aero-engine designer's art, nor one World Automotive Engineering Congress of the Society of Auto­ which so bristles with material for comment. The authors' remarks motive Engineers in New York and we are indebted to the Society on the inverted engine are illuminating and make it likely that and the authors for permission to reproduce it here. It constitutes, this present fashion may be merely a passing phase. There certainly as is natural, to some extent a defence of the liquid—or, as the is a very widely spread misconception, as it appears, regarding the authors prefer to call it, the " indirectly "—cooled engine. In advantages of this cylinder arrangement for the betterment of the England this is, of course, hardly necessary since it has always pilot's view. been felt here that there is room for both types and that any On the more theoretical side, it is most interesting to have the advantages the one may have for some purposes is counter-balanced results of MESSRS. ROLLS ROYCE'S researches into bearing materials by those of the other for different uses and it has consistently been and details of the composition and physical properties of the the policy of the Air Ministry to encourage the development of aluminium-tin alloy now used by them for big-end bearings. The both. theory of the cause of the burning of exhaust valves and seats In view of various patent specifications, summaries of which are following the introduction of lead into fuels is another of the many to be found in the files of AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING, it is interesting interesting points in this most important lecture. The theory evolved to account for a somewhat recondite phenomenon certainly to find the representatives of this famous firm so emphatic in their adherence to the poppet valve for in-line engines and so confident sounds convincing, but in the discussion that took place when the of the continued future of trouble-free exhaust valves. They dis­ paper was read in America MR. S. D. HERON expressed some doubt close, we believe for the first time, the constitution and properties as to its validity (although it fitted in with the facts) on the ground of a new alloy which has been developed for valves—originally to that the phenomenon had been met with as long ago as 1922 with, of course, an unleaded fuel. So it may perhaps still be considered replace stellite as a coating, but later as the material from which the valves themselves are forged. It is interesting, also, to read " not proven." the reasons for using hollow-stemmed valves without recourse to hollow heads. This is in contrast to the practice of the Hispano- OUR SUPPLEMENT Suiza firm, the production of whose hollow-headed valves was described, it will be remembered, in these columns a year ago. IN PLACE of our usual data sheet we are issuing on a loose sheet Hollow heads have not the adherents in this country that they this month drawings issued by the Ministry of Information of the have elsewhere, and they certainly have the disadvantage of being four types of aeroplane commonly used by the German Luftwaffe very much more difficult to produce. as troop carriers. To these (which we are, by the way, reproducing approximately to scale) we have added a photograph of each, which should aid in identification, and also a series of sketches Interchangeability showing the appearance and equipment of parachute troops. Perhaps the most interesting section in the paper is that devoted Although the drawings and sketches have already been popu­ to the interchangeable power-plant. It will probably come as a larized through the daily press we feel that at this juncture it is surprise to those who were not aware of it how far development in impossible for them to have too wide a circulation. We do not this direction has gone in this country. It was the result of the doubt that a large number of our British readers are members of policy formulated by the Air Ministry that alternative power the Local Defence Volunteer organization and that they will units should be available for all new military aeroplane types— find it useful to have this information collected together and the corollary of which requirement was, in Great Britain, a demand available in a suitable form for posting on the walls of their quarters. for complete interchangeability between air and liquid cooled They can then spend some of the time when not on actual look-out engine units. By way of contrast, we publish in this issue an duty familiarizing themselves with their appearance. As we have article on the standardization of engine units as effected by the indicated at the foot of the sheet, there are a few other types of Junkers Company. We have had this article by us for some months aeroplane which may be adapted to this work — notably the large with a view to its publication at a suitable opportunity and can four-engined Junkers G.38 illustrated on page 106 of our April think of no better occasion than to let it appear contemporaneously issue this year (though the two or three machines of this type with MESSRS. HIVES and SMITH'S notes on the subject. The German available at the beginning of the war may now no longer exist) article is interesting in the detail which is given on the method of and the four-engined Heinkel He-116 illustrated in AIRCRAFT overcoming some of the plumbing problems, but sees no further ENGINEERING, January, 1938, page 17. As we have pointed out, than the interchangeability of engines of the same type. The watchers near the coast should keep their eyes open for the possibility of anything so drastic as exchanging—and within appearance of unfamiliar types of seaplane ; in which connexion 48 hours—a liquid for an air cooled engine, and vice versa, is not they may be fairly confident that any multi-engined twin-float envisaged. The fact that this has been achieved in the latest seaplanes they see will be German, as there are no Britisli machines British military types is now revealed in this paper. It is a most of this type. Chief among these is the large and rather clumsy- remarkable development for the encouragement of which the Air looking Blohm and Voss Ha. 139, the most noticeable feature of Ministry deserves as much credit as does the British engineer for which is the downward slope of the wing from the fuselage to the its achievement. A year or two ago such a thing would have inboard engine on each side. All of them are four-engined, except been considered utterly impracticable and it makes the German the Junkers Ju.52-3M which is illustrated on the sheet as a land- limited effort in the same direction look pedestrian in the extreme. plane.

Journal

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace TechnologyEmerald Publishing

Published: Jul 1, 1940

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