October, 1939 AIRCRAFT ENGINEERING Workshop and Production Section H E universal exhaust manifold joint, 2,000 to 3,000 per minute at an amplitude of whic h is incorporated as an integral part on e inch . All thes e conditions were more severe of Ryan exhaust manifolds, has been tha n those encountered in actua l operation. develope d as a result of research and testing Servic e flight testing was carried out first ove r an extended period of time in close co o n one engine of the four-engined Douglas operatio n with the various aeroplane manu DC-4 transport with the co-operation of the facturer s to whom the Ryan Aeronautical Dougla s Aircraft Company, Inc. These tests Compan y is a regular supplier. prove d satisfactory and a set of these manifolds Th e need for a satisfactory flexible exhaust wer e manufactured for the DC-4. manifol d connexion has long been felt and it Manifold s incorporat ng the Ryan flexible has recently become acute in the case of the connexion s hav e been designed by, an d are now instea d of being divided into a number of mos t modern engine installations. This has bein g manufactured by, the Ryan Company section s with slip joints as was necessary on accrue d from the increased power output of for standard equ pmen t on the fifty two-row certai n of the older typ e manifolds. This type engines , th e current practice of placing engines Prat t & Whitney engined Lockheed bombers of manifold is ga s tight throughou t its length, o n resilient mountings, and the higher exhaust ordere d for the Australian government. whic h is an important advantage if used with ga s temperature s caused b y the use of modern a n exhaust driven turbo-supercharger. Th e Rya n Aeronautical Company has gener octan e fuels and high compression engines. Th e Ryan Universal Joint has been fully ousl y offered their developmen t to the industry Th e Ryan joint allows a true universal teste d both in th e laborator y an d in flight under an d is read y to give th e full co-operation of its movemen t in all directions a t each of th e ball- servic e conditions. The photographs illustrate engineerin g and production departments in and-socke t connexions and will operate under th e typ e of tes t rig on whic h a standar d join t was designin g an d manufacturing Ryan-type mani extrem e ranges of temperatures. Manifolds teste d for man y weeks of continuous operation folds of stainless steel, or Inconel, adapted to incorporatin g these joints are built with the a t temperatures of between 1200 deg . and th e individual requirements of aeroplane collecto r ring proper in one or two units only 1600 deg., and vibrating at a frequency of manufacturers . issued dealing with the testing of continuous and B.S. No. 407.—Phosphor Bronze Sheet and Strip. intermitten t furnaces with or without recuperators This revised specification has been drawn to BRITISH STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS cover the usual commercial range of copper-tin or regenerators, for heating and heat treatment. phosphor bronzes to which no other elements have Par t 1.—A short, simple code for carrying out, at been intentionally added. The material is divided minimum cost, simplified industrial tests for evaluat ha s had before it certain proposals of the Institute int o three grades classified according to the tin ing the performance of furnaces as effective and of Welding which are based on th e use of diagramma economic units. conten t and provides for these to be supplied in any tic symbols indicating only the more generally Par t 2.—A comprehensive code for the complete on e of five tempers in th e case of strip and four in used forms of welds. The new scheme follows evaluation of the performance and the efficiency th e case of sheet. closely the lines suggested for international stan of furnaces. Th e specification follows very closely the model dardization . Th e Code is applicable to mill and forge furnaces of the revised brass sheet strip and foil specifications Th e modification to the symbols ha s necessitated for the continuous and batch heating of ingots, issued in 1936 providing for tensile, elongation, a considerable alteration to the form in which the slabs, blooms and billets and to a wide range of bend, and hardness tests. different welds are defined in the glossary. The fixed hearth, bogie and conveyor type furnaces No limit of proportionality is now specified, definitions have been reviewed and have been employed by the iron and steel industry for the bu t for the information of users an appendix has brough t up to date. However, the extent of the reheatin g and heat treatment of rolled, forged or been included giving the minimum values of the modifications to the definitions is comparatively cast products. It is also applicable to certain fur 0·1 per cent proof stress which may be assumed to small. naces used in the non-ferrous and other industries. correspond to the tensile strengths which appear I t is hoped that in its simplified form the scheme Copies of this code may be obtained from the in th e specification and a diagram is provided enabl of symbols now recommended will be acceptable British Standards Institution, 28 Victoria Street, ing intermediate values to be determined. t o the industry. The Committee, while appreciat S.W.1, price 2s. 2d. post free). Copies may be obtained from the British ing tha t the introduction of this scheme in drawing Standard s Institution, 28 Victoria Street, S.W.I, offices, to supersede present methods, may occasion B.S.S. S.P.8. Turnbuckles (Tension Rod Type). price 2s. 2d., post free. a certain measure of inconvenience, hopes never Thi s specification covers the material and theless, tha t in the interests of nationa l co-ordination dimensions for turnbuckles of the tension rod B.S.S. 499.—Welding and Cutting. Nomenclature, th e scheme will bo widely adopted. type . The fitting comprises a right- and left- Definitions and Symbols. Added importance is attached to the revision han d threaded tension rod used in conjunction A revision of B.S.S. 499, first issued in 1933, has wit h two standard fork joints (S.P.3). The fork of this standard as the L.C.C. require the symbols jus t been published by the British Standards joint s may be fitted with rollers, in the case of on drawings submitted to them for approval to Institution . The original included a scheme of turnbuckle s placed in the run of a wire or wire symbols for indicating welds on engineering draw be in accordance with the British Standard. cable, or with a roller at one end and a pin at the ings based on the use of letters to show the general Copies of this specification can be obtained from other , if placed a t the end of a wire or wire cable form of the weld with a suffix and number relating th e British Standards Institution, 28 Victoria for connexion to a wiring lug. to th e details. The scheme has, however, not found Street, S.W.1, price 2s. 2d. pos t free. B.S.C. 859.—Test Code for Fuel-Fired Furnaces for Copies of this specification can be obtained from general favour because of its being somewhat Healing and Heat Treatment Purposes. th e B.S.I., 28 Victoria Street, S.W.1, price Is. 2d., complicated. pos t free. Th e Committee has reconsidered the matter and A British Standard Code (No. 859) has just been
Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology – Emerald Publishing
Published: Oct 1, 1939
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