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A systematic survey on deep learning and machine learning approaches of fake news detection in the pre- and post-COVID-19 pandemic

A systematic survey on deep learning and machine learning approaches of fake news detection in... The rapid advancement of technology in online communication and fingertip access to the Internet has resulted in the expedited dissemination of fake news to engage a global audience at a low cost by news channels, freelance reporters and websites. Amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, individuals are inflicted with these false and potentially harmful claims and stories, which may harm the vaccination process. Psychological studies reveal that the human ability to detect deception is only slightly better than chance; therefore, there is a growing need for serious consideration for developing automated strategies to combat fake news that traverses these platforms at an alarming rate. This paper systematically reviews the existing fake news detection technologies by exploring various machine learning and deep learning techniques pre- and post-pandemic, which has never been done before to the best of the authors’ knowledge.Design/methodology/approachThe detailed literature review on fake news detection is divided into three major parts. The authors searched papers no later than 2017 on fake news detection approaches on deep learning and machine learning. The papers were initially searched through the Google scholar platform, and they have been scrutinized for quality. The authors kept “Scopus” and “Web of Science” as quality indexing parameters. All research gaps and available databases, data pre-processing, feature extraction techniques and evaluation methods for current fake news detection technologies have been explored, illustrating them using tables, charts and trees.FindingsThe paper is dissected into two approaches, namely machine learning and deep learning, to present a better understanding and a clear objective. Next, the authors present a viewpoint on which approach is better and future research trends, issues and challenges for researchers, given the relevance and urgency of a detailed and thorough analysis of existing models. This paper also delves into fake new detection during COVID-19, and it can be inferred that research and modeling are shifting toward the use of ensemble approaches.Originality/valueThe study also identifies several novel automated web-based approaches used by researchers to assess the validity of pandemic news that have proven to be successful, although currently reported accuracy has not yet reached consistent levels in the real world. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics Emerald Publishing

A systematic survey on deep learning and machine learning approaches of fake news detection in the pre- and post-COVID-19 pandemic

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Publisher
Emerald Publishing
Copyright
© Emerald Publishing Limited
ISSN
1756-378X
DOI
10.1108/ijicc-04-2021-0069
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

The rapid advancement of technology in online communication and fingertip access to the Internet has resulted in the expedited dissemination of fake news to engage a global audience at a low cost by news channels, freelance reporters and websites. Amid the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, individuals are inflicted with these false and potentially harmful claims and stories, which may harm the vaccination process. Psychological studies reveal that the human ability to detect deception is only slightly better than chance; therefore, there is a growing need for serious consideration for developing automated strategies to combat fake news that traverses these platforms at an alarming rate. This paper systematically reviews the existing fake news detection technologies by exploring various machine learning and deep learning techniques pre- and post-pandemic, which has never been done before to the best of the authors’ knowledge.Design/methodology/approachThe detailed literature review on fake news detection is divided into three major parts. The authors searched papers no later than 2017 on fake news detection approaches on deep learning and machine learning. The papers were initially searched through the Google scholar platform, and they have been scrutinized for quality. The authors kept “Scopus” and “Web of Science” as quality indexing parameters. All research gaps and available databases, data pre-processing, feature extraction techniques and evaluation methods for current fake news detection technologies have been explored, illustrating them using tables, charts and trees.FindingsThe paper is dissected into two approaches, namely machine learning and deep learning, to present a better understanding and a clear objective. Next, the authors present a viewpoint on which approach is better and future research trends, issues and challenges for researchers, given the relevance and urgency of a detailed and thorough analysis of existing models. This paper also delves into fake new detection during COVID-19, and it can be inferred that research and modeling are shifting toward the use of ensemble approaches.Originality/valueThe study also identifies several novel automated web-based approaches used by researchers to assess the validity of pandemic news that have proven to be successful, although currently reported accuracy has not yet reached consistent levels in the real world.

Journal

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and CyberneticsEmerald Publishing

Published: Oct 4, 2021

Keywords: Fake news detection; Machine learning; Deep learning; Artificial intelligence; Natural language processing; COVID-19; Social media; Misinformation

References