This paper attempts to present a general theory to explain evaluation and development of management practices in various social systems, organizations, cultures and countries. This theory proposes that there are five stages and levels of sophistication in management. It is also possible to link managementlevel in an organization and the type of leadership that goes with it. At higher management levels, more systemic and strategic management is required, also as evidenced in recent international studies by Jaques. Management in developing countries can be enhanced by understanding these stages and levels advanced in international management and administration references.
Kybernetes – Emerald Publishing
Published: Apr 1, 1983