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6 AIRCRAFT ENGINEERIN G March, 1929 Th e First of a Series of Educational Articles Fo r Those Taking the A.I.D. Examinations tie-rods, cables tha t may be expected to occur TH E successful operation of civil air CATEGORY "D."—Inspection of Aero-Engines a s the result of fair wear-and-tear or to be after Overhaul. craft—i n this country, at any rate produced by slight mishaps experienced during The general principles of the inspection of —depend s to a very large extent ordinary flying operations, together with the aero-engines during construction and /or com o n th e efficiency of th e groun d engineer. Any methods of effecting minor repairs and replace plete overhaul, including:— thin g that tends to raise the standard of ments . (1) Knowledge of materials used in engine groun d engineering, whether it be by way construction ; methods of identification; re (4) Knowledge of the general principles of examination and testing. Characteristic defects th e installation, functioning and testing of the of improving the knowledge of existing, or which render them unsuitable and precautions instrument s and equipment mentioned in the of providing a source of knowledge for pros t o be observed during processes of manufacture Air Navigation Directions as essential equip pective , ground engineers, mus t be of service (heat-treatment, white metalling, etc.), to men t for the types of aircraft covered by the t o civil aviation generally. ensure that the finished parts are in a satis licence. factory condition. As defined in Air Navigation Directions (2) The general principles of brake-testing CATEGORY "B."—Inspection of Aircraft after (A.N.D.7), issued by the Air Ministry on and measurement of horse-power, fuel and oil Overhaul. 9 November, 1928, a ground engineer is one consumptions, etc., as applied to aero-engines. The general principles of the inspection of wh o is licensed as a competen t person for the (3) Knowledge of the general assembly, aircraft construction, including:— adjustment and methods of testing the correct inspection , etc., of aircraft. (1) Knowledge of non-metallic materials; erection of the components of the particular Section II of the Directions indicates the methods of indentification, examination and typ e or types of aero-enginc for which the condition s under which Certificates, of Air testing ; characteristic defects which render licence is required, including the safe allowances the m unsuitable; and precautions to be worthines s are granted. It is laid down for wear, balancing of parts, etc. The methods observed in their application to aircraft con of adjustment, repair and testing of magnetos, i n regard to "subsequent " aircraft tha t " a struction. carburettors, engine starters, pumps, etc., final inspection of the aircraft as regards its (2) Knowledge of metallic materials ; methods tha t arc fitted to the particular type of engine. fitness for flight shall be mad e by a represent of identification, examination and testing; (4) Knowledge of the methods of inspecting ativ e or representatives of the constructor characteristic defects which render them and testing the correct functioning of the unsuitable and precautions to be observed holdin g ground engineers' licences in Cate ignition, carburation, lubrication and cooling during processes of manufacture (heat-treat gories A and C." Section III explains that systems on the engine during tuning up. ment , welding, brazing, soldering, plating, CATEGORY "X."—Othe r duties, as specified a person ma y be licensed as a groun d engineer etc.). in the licence, which, under the Order, are i n any or all of the following Categories:— (3) For licences to include seaplane endorse required to be performed by a licensed ground A, B , C, D an d X . Briefly stated , the duties ments, knowledge of the methods of con engineer. struction and examination of hulls and floats falling under these headings are: — Th e prospective ground engineer must, is also required. (4) Knowledge of the methods of construc then , have had good practical experience Categor y A—Inspection of aircraft before tion, examination and testing of aircraft parts i n aeroplane engineering or operational prac flight. and components (fuselages, wings, propellers, tices , and must, in addition, have a know tanks , radiators, pumps, cocks, etc.). Categor y B—Inspection of aircraft after ledge of the reasons underlying such prac (5) For licences to include aircraft of all- overhaul . tices . Many people have had opportunities metal construction, knowledge of the high Categor y C—Inspection of aero-engines tensile steels and aluminium alloys, and the of gaining" th e necessary practical experience, before flight. special workshop processes applicable to the bu t to acquire the theoretical knowledge Categor y D—Inspection of aero-engines materials is required. essential for the successful taking of the (6) Knowledge of methods of inspecting and after overhaul. examination s is a more difficult matter. testing the complete aircraft for correct Categor y X—Other duties which may re assembly ; installation of engine, controls, Thoug h the required information is avail quir e to be performed by a licensed ground petrol oil and water systems, instruments, able , it is not always readily accessible. It engineer. electrical services and other appliances. ha s to be sought and, when found, must I n order to qualify for a ground engineer's frequentl y be extracted from a mass of, to CATEGORY " C."—Inspection of Aero-Engines licence, a candidate must not be under 21 th e ground engineer, irrelevant material. before Flight. year s of age ; must pass an examination; Th e articles to which this is a n introduction The general principles of the inspection and an d must produce satisfactory proof of will do this selection, an d provide th e ground testing of aero-engine installation and main practica l experience or knowledge of the engineer in concise form with th e knowledge tenance, including:— subjec t concerned. (1) Knowledge of the general construction necessar y for passing his examinations. Th e examinations are generally based on of the particular type or types of engine for Th e articles will, in time, cover the whole which the licence is required, together with th e following syllabuses:— field of subjects required for the various th e running permissible before overhaul. The categories of ground engineers' licences. method of carrying out top-overhaul, the de CATEGORY "A."—Inspection of Aircraft before fects likely to be encountered and the Ther e will be articles, comprehensive and Flight. permissible allowances for wear-and-tear. The complet e in themselves, devoted to the Th e general principles of the systematic methods of inspection and testing during and variou s licences individually. There will also maintenance and examination of aircraft after top-overhaul to ensure correct assembly before flight, including:— b e articles of a wider scope and more ad and functioning. vance d nature. (1) Knowledge of the methods of checking (2) Knowledge of th e method s of examination th e correct assembly of components, the and testing of the correct erection of th e power Eac h article will be written by an rigging of an erected aircraft and the func plan t in th e aircraft, together with characteristic acknowledge d authority on the subject, tioning of the flying controls, together with installation defects in the ignition, carburation, an d particular care will be taken that the th e correction of faults experienced during lubrication and cooling systems and controls. flight. (3) Knowledge of the examination and matte r shall be practical and the manner of (2) For licences to include seaplanes, know testing of the correct adjustment and func presentmen t simple and clear. ledge of the erection, truing up and mainten tioning of the power plant after installation, Th e scheme is admittedly an ambitious ance of hulls and floats. and during daily maintenance, in the aircraft, one, but we believe that there is a real need (3) Knowledge of the defects and deteriora including all accessories (airscrews, magnetos, for it and tha t it will a t last fill a serious gap tion in wing coverings, timber members, carburettors, pumps, filters, pressure gauges, metal fittings, propellers, stream-line wires, revolution and temperature indicators, etc.). in the field of aeronautical education.
Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology – Emerald Publishing
Published: Jan 1, 1929
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