Year-to-year changes in preferential flow development in a seasonal snowpack and their dependence on snowpack conditions

Year-to-year changes in preferential flow development in a seasonal snowpack and their dependence... Water percolation into a snowpack can be classified as either uniform or preferential percolation through water channels. To expand the one-dimensional water movement model for simulation of multidimensional water movement in a snowpack, it is necessary to understand the conditions that generate the preferential percolation of water through the water channels in a natural snowpack. The Snow and Ice Research Center, National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience, has operated a multi-compartment-lysimeter (M.C.L.) (3 × 3 m in area; consisting of nine small lysimeters each of 1 × 1 m area) to measure the distribution of water discharged from the bottom of the natural snowpack since 2006. The measured data indicate strongly heterogeneous distribution of water discharge (SHD). Specifically, significant differences were observed between the discharges at each small lysimeter. Such SHD should be attributable to the preferential flow of water concentrated in water channels due to considerable horizontal water movement in the snowpack. We compared nine years of M.C.L. data with corresponding meteorological data and found that SHD often occurred under the following conditions: 1) during winters, when the maximum snow height was greater than the average maximum snow height over 30 years (1.4 m); 2) during the latter part of winter, specifically, the period after the maximum snow height was recorded; and 3) in the case of a large amount of water input from melting snow and rain. Moreover, we analysed the SHD conditions using snow pit data and found that SHD mostly occurred when there were strong differences in the capillary force between snow layers, such as that between fine and coarse-layered structures, as in the shallow part in the snowpack. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Cold Regions Science and Technology Elsevier

Year-to-year changes in preferential flow development in a seasonal snowpack and their dependence on snowpack conditions

Loading next page...
 
/lp/elsevier/year-to-year-changes-in-preferential-flow-development-in-a-seasonal-xjVyR3Vb7B
Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 The Authors
ISSN
0165-232X
D.O.I.
10.1016/j.coldregions.2018.02.009
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Water percolation into a snowpack can be classified as either uniform or preferential percolation through water channels. To expand the one-dimensional water movement model for simulation of multidimensional water movement in a snowpack, it is necessary to understand the conditions that generate the preferential percolation of water through the water channels in a natural snowpack. The Snow and Ice Research Center, National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience, has operated a multi-compartment-lysimeter (M.C.L.) (3 × 3 m in area; consisting of nine small lysimeters each of 1 × 1 m area) to measure the distribution of water discharged from the bottom of the natural snowpack since 2006. The measured data indicate strongly heterogeneous distribution of water discharge (SHD). Specifically, significant differences were observed between the discharges at each small lysimeter. Such SHD should be attributable to the preferential flow of water concentrated in water channels due to considerable horizontal water movement in the snowpack. We compared nine years of M.C.L. data with corresponding meteorological data and found that SHD often occurred under the following conditions: 1) during winters, when the maximum snow height was greater than the average maximum snow height over 30 years (1.4 m); 2) during the latter part of winter, specifically, the period after the maximum snow height was recorded; and 3) in the case of a large amount of water input from melting snow and rain. Moreover, we analysed the SHD conditions using snow pit data and found that SHD mostly occurred when there were strong differences in the capillary force between snow layers, such as that between fine and coarse-layered structures, as in the shallow part in the snowpack.

Journal

Cold Regions Science and TechnologyElsevier

Published: May 1, 2018

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Unlimited reading

Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.

Stay up to date

Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.

Organize your research

It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve Freelancer

DeepDyve Pro

Price
FREE
$49/month

$360/year
Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed
Create lists to
organize your research
Export lists, citations
Read DeepDyve articles
Abstract access only
Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles
Print
20 pages/month
PDF Discount
20% off