•We compare carless households in Germany & California, two car-dependent societies.•We estimate generalized structural equations models on the 2012 CHTS and 2008 MiD.•Educated households are more likely to be voluntarily carless in Germany, not in CA.•Employment density has a higher impact in Germany than in CA.•To decrease car dependency, CA also needs to adjust the cost of driving.
Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice – Elsevier
Published: Mar 1, 2018
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