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When the body is time: Spatial and temporal deixis in children with visual impairments and sighted children

1 Introduction</h5> The metaphorical means used to make concepts relating to “time” more understandable are primarily space-related. The grounding metaphors of “ moving ego ” and “ moving time ” based on direct sensorimotor experiences of motion (walking) and on representations of time as physical objects that can move are common in many languages ( Boroditsky, 2000; Gentner, 2001; Graf, 2011; Moore, 2006; Núñez, Motz, & Teuscher, 2006; Özçalışkan, 2005; Sinha, Sinha, Zinken, & Sampaio, 2011 ).</P>The word “time” in ancient Bulgarian translates as ‘ ’ ( vrěmę ) and refers to the verb ‘ ’ or ‘ ’, which means to “turn” or to “go round”. This “cyclical” understanding of time has been shown to be different from that utilised in current Bulgarian language. Specifically, “time” appears to be understood in terms of its relationship to material objects located in space that can be pointed at or described regarding their physical properties (e.g., objects’ size and consistency) and movability (e.g., some objects can run, fly, or crawl) ( Iossifova, 2008 ). For example, Iossifova (2008) found that, during a free verbal association experiment, adult Bulgarians linked the word “time” with words such as “pass”, “fly”, “trail”, “run”, http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Research in Developmental Disabilities Elsevier
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