1 Introduction</h5> Due to the growing world oil demand and scarcity of the conventional oil reserves, increasing attention is turning towards huge unconventional resources such as heavy-oil and oil sands deposits due to their enormous volume and worldwide distribution. Production from these reservoirs is challenging owing to the immobile nature of heavy oil and bitumen and reducing the in-situ viscosity of the oil is considered as the main objective of any recovery process.</P>Heavy-oil or bitumen recovery requires extensive reservoir heating using either conventional methods such as steam and air injection or unconventional ones that apply electrical or electromagnetic methods. Steam applications are costly due to infrastructure and operational cost, and environmental impacts, eventually yielding a high steam–oil ratio (SOR). Recently, considerable attention was devoted to find a suitable substitution for steam stimulation to be applied for uneconomic cases, or to improve steam injection technique in a way to reduce the SOR. Recently, electric/electromagnetic heating methods have been proposed and tested as an alternative, especially in thin bitumen reservoirs and oil shale deposits ( Pizarro and Trevisan, 1990; Davidson, 1995; Sahni et al., 2000; Hascakir et al., 2008 ). Although they reported technically successful results, improvements are still required
Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering – Elsevier
Published: Jul 1, 2014
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