1 Introduction</h5> During the last decade, the use of network models has been steadily growing in a large number of areas, e. g ., social network analysis, computational biology, and financial information data mining, [1–5] .</P>In all these areas it is important to identify groups of elements that form clusters. The characterization of a cluster may be made from several standpoints. In some cases, the most important aspect is the number (or the proportion) of direct links between pairs of elements. In other cases, the most important feature is the number of hops that separate pairs of elements, i. e ., the number of intermediate elements that are needed to establish a connection between any two members. The former case can be addressed with density-based network models such as cliques, quasi-cliques, k -cores and k -plexes [6–13] . The latter case can be addressed with diameter-based network models such as k -clubs.</P>Given an undirected graph G = ( V , E ) and a pair of nodes u , v ∈ V , the distance d i s t G ( u , v ) is the minimum number of edges needed to link u and v in
Computers & Operations Research – Elsevier
Published: Dec 1, 2014
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