Metallic wear occurs by one of the following two mechanisms. Material may extrude out from the sides of the contact giving rise to thin slivers which, subsequently, separate to produce wear debris. Fracture plays no intrinsic role in the wear process, and occurs only in the separation of wear debris which would otherwise remain attached to the sides of the contact. This mechanism has been modelled recently. The second mechanism is the fracture of surface material, causing a piece of material to leave the surface as wear debris. This is the so-called ‘delamination’ wear suggested by NP Suh at MIT in the 1970s, and fracture is an intrinsic part of this wear mechanism. This paper presents a ratchetting failure based approach to modelling (delamination) wear. Ratchetting failure occurs when the accumulated deformation exceeds a critical value. Using mechanics it is possible to relate the wear rate to the applied load, the roughness of the contacting bodies, and the elastic and plastic properties of the material near the surface. The formation of a mechanically mixed layer (MML) or transfer layer, here denoted ‘Tribological Layer’ generically, leads to a significant difference in the wear response since the properties of the layer differ from those of the bulk. Wear rate is governed by the near-surface properties and so the Tribological Layer plays a critical role in wear prediction. In this work, the role of the Tribological Layer in altering the wear response has been studied by examining the effects of changes in the hardness, stress–strain behaviour and ductility of the layer.
Wear – Elsevier
Published: Oct 1, 2000
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