Trafficking of molecules and metabolic signals in the retina

Trafficking of molecules and metabolic signals in the retina Photoreceptors need the support of pigment epithelial (PE) and Müller glial cells in order to maintain visual sensitivity and neurotransmitter resynthesis. In rod outer segments (ROS), all-trans-retinal is transformed to all-trans-retinol by retinol dehydrogenase using NADPH. NADPH is restored in ROS by the pentose phosphate pathway utilizing high amounts of glucose supplied by choriocapillaries. The retinal formed is transported to PE cells where regeneration of 11-cis-retinal occurs. Müller cells take up and metabolize glucose predominantly to lactate which is massively released into the extracellular space (ES). Lactate is taken up by photoreceptors, where it is transformed to pyruvate which, in turn, enters the Krebs cycle in mitochondria of the inner segment. Stimulation of neurotransmitter release by darkness induces 130% rise in the amount of glutamate released into ES. Glutamate is transported into Müller cells where it is predominantly transformed to glutamine. Stimulation of photoreceptors induces an eightfold increase in glutamine formation. It appears, therefore, that there is a signaling function in the transfer of amino acids from Müller cells to photoreceptors. Work on the model-system of the honeybee retina demonstrated that photoreceptors release NH + 4 and glutamate in a stimulus-dependent manner which, in turn, contribute to the biosynthesis of alanine in glia. Alanine released into the extracellular space is taken up and used by photoreceptors. Glial cells take glutamate by high-affinity transporters. This uptake induces a transient change in glial cell metabolism. The transformation of glutamate to glutamine is possibly also controlled by the uptake of NH + 4 which directly affects cellular metabolism. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Progress in Retinal and Eye Research Elsevier

Trafficking of molecules and metabolic signals in the retina

Loading next page...
 
/lp/elsevier/trafficking-of-molecules-and-metabolic-signals-in-the-retina-9JY4gZGtD3
Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 1998 Elsevier Science Ltd
ISSN
1350-9462
eISSN
1873-1635
D.O.I.
10.1016/S1350-9462(98)00010-X
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Photoreceptors need the support of pigment epithelial (PE) and Müller glial cells in order to maintain visual sensitivity and neurotransmitter resynthesis. In rod outer segments (ROS), all-trans-retinal is transformed to all-trans-retinol by retinol dehydrogenase using NADPH. NADPH is restored in ROS by the pentose phosphate pathway utilizing high amounts of glucose supplied by choriocapillaries. The retinal formed is transported to PE cells where regeneration of 11-cis-retinal occurs. Müller cells take up and metabolize glucose predominantly to lactate which is massively released into the extracellular space (ES). Lactate is taken up by photoreceptors, where it is transformed to pyruvate which, in turn, enters the Krebs cycle in mitochondria of the inner segment. Stimulation of neurotransmitter release by darkness induces 130% rise in the amount of glutamate released into ES. Glutamate is transported into Müller cells where it is predominantly transformed to glutamine. Stimulation of photoreceptors induces an eightfold increase in glutamine formation. It appears, therefore, that there is a signaling function in the transfer of amino acids from Müller cells to photoreceptors. Work on the model-system of the honeybee retina demonstrated that photoreceptors release NH + 4 and glutamate in a stimulus-dependent manner which, in turn, contribute to the biosynthesis of alanine in glia. Alanine released into the extracellular space is taken up and used by photoreceptors. Glial cells take glutamate by high-affinity transporters. This uptake induces a transient change in glial cell metabolism. The transformation of glutamate to glutamine is possibly also controlled by the uptake of NH + 4 which directly affects cellular metabolism.

Journal

Progress in Retinal and Eye ResearchElsevier

Published: Aug 1, 1998

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create folders to
organize your research

Export folders, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off