Increasing support for the use of Coal fly ash (CFA) in agriculture has necessitated a better understanding of the effects of the CFA in various cropping schemes. Experiments were conducted to assess mutagenic response of a mutant strain of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (TA100) to varying concentrations of CFA-water extracts, determine oxidative stress in switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) at varying levels of CFA-soil admixtures, and evaluate mycorrhiza-mediated modulation of oxidative stress responses of CFA-grown switchgrass. The TA100 exposed to 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25% (w/v) CFA-water extracts elicited significant (p < 0.05) mutagenic responses at 20% and 25% extract levels but not below the 15% level. In greenhouse pot experiment, CFA-soil admixtures at 7.5% and 15% (w/w) significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) by 19.1% and 28.3% respectively, compared to control soil (0% w/w CFA/soil). Under the same conditions, activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) decreased by 75.9% and 66.9%. In contrast to the antioxidant enzyme activities, levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) an indicator of lipid peroxidation increased significantly (p < 0.05) by 30.49% and 38.38%. Inoculation of 7.5% and 15% CFA-soil admixtures with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), Rhizophaga clarus enhanced the activities of both SOD and GPx in the switchgrass, while it significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the levels of MDA. The study demonstrated that incorporation of CFA (at concentrations considered to be non-mutagenic against TA100) as soil amendment produced concentration-dependent oxidative stress responses in switchgrass; however, inoculation of the CFA-soil admixtures with AMF significantly modulated the oxidative stress responses.
Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety – Elsevier
Published: Oct 1, 2017
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