The study of the effects of human pharmaceuticals has been considered a priority in terms of environmental safety. However, the available information concerning soil organisms is scarce. To decrease this knowledge gap, the effects of carbamazepine and fluoxetine (0.04, 0.4, 4 and 40mg·kg−1 of soil) were assessed on the springtail Folsomia candida, for three consecutive generations. The assessed endpoints included survival, reproduction and biomarkers associated with biotransformation, neurotransmission and peroxidative damage. A light avoidance behavior test was performed, in the third generation. The obtained data demonstrate that both pharmaceuticals may affect Collembola populations after three generational exposures, as showed by the decrease trend for both survival and reproduction. The effects of carbamazepine were however, more pronounced. After the third generational exposure to all carbamazepine tested concentrations and the three highest concentrations of fluoxetine, F. candida displayed altered light avoidance behavior. The biochemical endpoints also revealed that carbamazepine and fluoxetine may exert toxic effects to F. candida through the induction of oxidative stress and impairment in neurotransmission with an apparent higher potential for carbamazepine. Overall, data show that the effects of pharmaceuticals throughout different generations should be considered in risk assessment studies.
Science of the Total Environment – Elsevier
Published: Jun 1, 2018
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