Towards new enzymes for biofuels: lessons from chitinase research

Towards new enzymes for biofuels: lessons from chitinase research Enzymatic conversion of structural polysaccharides in plant biomass is a key issue in the development of second generation (‘lignocellulosic’) bioethanol. The efficiency of this process depends in part on the ability of enzymes to disrupt crystalline polysaccharides, thus gaining access to single polymer chains. Recently, new insights into how enzymes accomplish this have been obtained from studies on enzymatic conversion of chitin. First, chitinolytic microorganisms were shown to produce non-hydrolytic accessory proteins that increase enzyme efficiency. Second, it was shown that a processive mechanism, which is generally considered favorable because it improves substrate accessibility, might in fact slow down enzymes. These findings suggest new focal points for the development of enzyme technology for depolymerizing recalcitrant polysaccharide biomass. Improving substrate accessibility should be a key issue because this might reduce the need for using processive enzymes, which are intrinsically slow and abundantly present in current commercial enzyme preparations for biomass conversion. Furthermore, carefully selected substrate-disrupting accessory proteins or domains might provide novel tools to improve substrate accessibility and thus contribute to more efficient enzymatic processes. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Trends in Biotechnology Elsevier

Towards new enzymes for biofuels: lessons from chitinase research

Loading next page...
 
/lp/elsevier/towards-new-enzymes-for-biofuels-lessons-from-chitinase-research-EO1WMXhPGq
Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd
ISSN
0167-7799
D.O.I.
10.1016/j.tibtech.2008.02.004
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Enzymatic conversion of structural polysaccharides in plant biomass is a key issue in the development of second generation (‘lignocellulosic’) bioethanol. The efficiency of this process depends in part on the ability of enzymes to disrupt crystalline polysaccharides, thus gaining access to single polymer chains. Recently, new insights into how enzymes accomplish this have been obtained from studies on enzymatic conversion of chitin. First, chitinolytic microorganisms were shown to produce non-hydrolytic accessory proteins that increase enzyme efficiency. Second, it was shown that a processive mechanism, which is generally considered favorable because it improves substrate accessibility, might in fact slow down enzymes. These findings suggest new focal points for the development of enzyme technology for depolymerizing recalcitrant polysaccharide biomass. Improving substrate accessibility should be a key issue because this might reduce the need for using processive enzymes, which are intrinsically slow and abundantly present in current commercial enzyme preparations for biomass conversion. Furthermore, carefully selected substrate-disrupting accessory proteins or domains might provide novel tools to improve substrate accessibility and thus contribute to more efficient enzymatic processes.

Journal

Trends in BiotechnologyElsevier

Published: May 1, 2008

References

  • Endo/exo mechanism and processivity of family 18 chitinases produced by Serratia marcescens
    Horn, S.J.
  • What is (and is not) vital to advancing cellulosic ethanol
    Wyman, C.E.
  • Crystalline cellulose degradation: new insight into the function of cellobiohydrolases
    Teeri, T.T.
  • Cellulose-binding domain of endoglucanase III from Trichoderma reesei disrupting the structure of cellulose
    Xiao, Z.
  • Engineering the exo-loop of Trichoderma reesei cellobiohydrolase, Cel7A. A comparison with Phanerochaete chrysosporium Cel7D
    Von Ossowski, I.

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create lists to
organize your research

Export lists, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off