“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”

Instant Access to Thousands of Journals for just $40/month

Try 2 weeks free now

Toluene inhibits voltage-sensitive calcium channels expressed in pheochromocytoma cells

Commercial solvents such as toluene are commonly used as drugs of abuse by children and adolescents. The cellular and molecular sites and mechanisms of actions of these compounds are not well studied but their effects on behavior resemble those of central nervous system depressants such as alcohol, barbiturates and benzodiazepines. In this study, the effects of toluene on voltage-sensitive calcium channels (VSCCs) were measured in pheochromocytoma cells. The KCl-induced rise in intracellular calcium as measured by calcium imaging was almost completely blocked by the dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist nifedipine verifying that undifferentiated pheochromocytoma cells express mainly the L-type of calcium channel. Toluene (0.3–3000 μM) by itself did not affect intracellular calcium levels in resting cells but dose-dependently inhibited the KCl-induced rise in calcium. This inhibition was substantially reversed upon washout of the toluene-containing solution. KCl-dependent increases in intracellular calcium in cells differentiated with nerve growth factor (NGF) were largely insensitive to nifedipine. Toluene produced a greater inhibition of the KCl response in NGF treated cells as compared with undifferentiated cells. A similar finding was obtained when whole-cell patch-clamp-electrophysiology was used to directly monitor the effects of toluene on voltage-activated calcium currents in undifferentiated and differentiated cells. These results show that dihydropyridine sensitive and insensitive calcium channels are inhibited by toluene and may represent important sites of action for this compound. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Neurochemistry International Elsevier
Loading next page...

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.

DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy unlimited access and
personalized recommendations from
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $40/month

Try 2 weeks free now

Explore the DeepDyve Library

How DeepDyve Works

Spend time researching, not time worrying you’re buying articles that might not be useful.

Unlimited reading

Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.

Stay up to date

Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.

Organize your research

It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from Springer, Elsevier, Nature, IEEE, Wiley-Blackwell and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

Simple and Affordable Pricing

14-day free trial. Cancel anytime, with a 30-day money-back guarantee.

Monthly Plan

  • Read unlimited articles
  • Personalized recommendations
  • Print 20 pages per month
  • 20% off on PDF purchases
  • Organize your research
  • Get updates on your journals and topic searches


Best Deal — 25% off

Annual Plan

  • All the features of the Professional Plan, but for 25% off!
  • For the normal price of 10 articles elsewhere, you get one full year of unlimited access to articles.

billed annually