Nomenclature</h5> c p specific heat capacity (J kg −1 K −1 )</P>d inter-cell distance (m)</P>E total energy (J)</P>h height (m)</P>k T thermal conductivity (W m −1 K −1 )</P>L thickness (m)</P>l length (m)</P>m cell mass (kg)</P>P thermal power (W)</P>p pressure (Pa)</P>Q calorific value (J)</P>T temperature (K)</P>T ¯ average temperature (K)</P>t time (s)</P>U nominal voltage (V)</P>V volume (m 3 )</P>v velocity (m s −1 )</P>v → velocity vector (m s −1 )</P>Greek</h5> Δ T temperature difference (K)</P>μ viscosity (Pa s)</P>ξ space occupancy rate (–)</P>ρ density (kg m −3 )</P>Subscripts</h5> a axial direction of cylindrical cell</P>can cell can</P>ele electrolyte</P>i different layer of internal cell component</P>max maximum</P>min minimum</P>ncc negative electrode current collector</P>ne negative electrode</P>pcc positive electrode current collector</P>pe positive electrode</P>r radial direction of cylindrical cell</P>s separator</P>x x direction</P>y y direction</P>z z direction</P>1 Introduction</h5> Among the various types of batteries, lithium ion battery (LIB) is taking an increasing market share due to its high capacity, high efficiency, long life and low self-discharge rate [1,2] . The wide application in portable electronic devices as well as in vehicles [3,4] , ships and aircrafts makes LIB a strong candidate in the application of large battery systems  , therefore, battery management system (BMS) has
Applied Energy – Elsevier
Published: Dec 1, 2014
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