The slow and fast life histories of early birds and night owls: their future- or present-orientation accounts for their sexually monogamous or promiscuous tendencies

The slow and fast life histories of early birds and night owls: their future- or... 1 Introduction</h5> Circadian rhythms are widespread across organisms, from bacteria to animals, have evolved independently multiple times, and have adaptive value that is bound to the cyclical variation of stimuli and resources necessary for survival and reproduction ( DeCoursey, 2004 ). In humans there is considerable inter-individual variation in behavioral circadian rhythms, and such variation can be reliably identified with self-reported measures of diurnal activity patterns, such as wake/sleep times and the timing of peak cognitive performance ( Horne & Östberg, 1976, 1977 ). Using this approach it has been shown that people's sleep patterns are normally distributed, with approximately 30% of individuals falling at the two extremes ( Adan et al., 2012 ). At one extreme of the distribution, morning-types (or early birds) prefer early wake-up and sleeping times, reach maximum alertness soon after waking up, and have cognitive performance peaks early during the day. At the other extreme, evening-types (or night owls) are characterized by late wake-up and sleeping times and by their preference for being active in the evening. In a given population, approximately 70% of individuals have sleep pattern preferences intermediate between those of early birds and night owls (see Adan et al., 2012 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Evolution and Human Behavior Elsevier

The slow and fast life histories of early birds and night owls: their future- or present-orientation accounts for their sexually monogamous or promiscuous tendencies

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Publisher
Elsevier
Copyright
Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc.
ISSN
1090-5138
DOI
10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2014.09.008
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

1 Introduction</h5> Circadian rhythms are widespread across organisms, from bacteria to animals, have evolved independently multiple times, and have adaptive value that is bound to the cyclical variation of stimuli and resources necessary for survival and reproduction ( DeCoursey, 2004 ). In humans there is considerable inter-individual variation in behavioral circadian rhythms, and such variation can be reliably identified with self-reported measures of diurnal activity patterns, such as wake/sleep times and the timing of peak cognitive performance ( Horne & Östberg, 1976, 1977 ). Using this approach it has been shown that people's sleep patterns are normally distributed, with approximately 30% of individuals falling at the two extremes ( Adan et al., 2012 ). At one extreme of the distribution, morning-types (or early birds) prefer early wake-up and sleeping times, reach maximum alertness soon after waking up, and have cognitive performance peaks early during the day. At the other extreme, evening-types (or night owls) are characterized by late wake-up and sleeping times and by their preference for being active in the evening. In a given population, approximately 70% of individuals have sleep pattern preferences intermediate between those of early birds and night owls (see Adan et al., 2012

Journal

Evolution and Human BehaviorElsevier

Published: Mar 1, 2015

References

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