World Development 101 (2018) 16–27 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect World Development journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/worlddev The Role of Private Standards for Manufactured Food Exports from Developing Countries a,⇑ b,c Malte Ehrich , Axel Mangelsdorf University of Göttingen, Germany Technical University Berlin, Germany VDI/VDE Innovation + Technik GmbH, Berlin, Germany ar ti c l e i nf o su mmary Article history: The relevance of non-tariff barriers for global trade ﬂows has increased in recent decades. However, the Accepted 14 August 2017 effect of food standards—as a particular important non-tariff measure—on agricultural trade ﬂows Available online 12 September 2017 remains unclear. We contribute to the debate with a unique dataset that contains the number of food processing ﬁrms of 87 countries from 2008 to 2013 that are certiﬁed with the International Featured Key words: Standard (IFS). We estimate a gravity model using the one-year lag of IFS as well as IFS certiﬁcation in agricultural trade neighboring countries as an instrument to address potential endogeneity. We ﬁnd that IFS increases c. private food standards p. bilateral exports on average of seven agricultural product categories in both speciﬁcations. However, manufactured food the effect remains robust only for high- and middle-income countries and
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