Introduction</h5> The vast majority of research into gas/liquids flows has been carried out with air/water mixtures. This, in spite of the reality that most liquids in the hydrocarbon extraction and chemical process industries have surface tensions significantly lower than water at ambient temperature and pressure. In other cases, particularly in the metal processing area, the surface tension is much higher than that of water. Another very different set of properties is found in the flows of silicatic magmas in volcanic columns. Magmas are multiphase mixtures of silica-rich liquid, crystals and gas. The surface tension of the liquid is ∼0.4 N/m. Moreover, the viscosity of magmas also varies with their chemical composition (mostly silica and water content), which is affected by processes like gas exsolution and crystallization of mineral species and is in the range 100–10 9 Pa s. Obviously, for the highest viscosities separate two-phase flow is hardly possible. More importantly, the viscosity of basalt, the least viscous of the common types of magma, is 10–1000 Pa s and conditions for separated gas–liquid flows are expected when the magmas rise within the crust. The gas phase consists of many components usually dominated by water vapour. It is well
International Journal of Multiphase Flow – Elsevier
Published: Dec 1, 2014
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