Histamine-releasing neurons are located exclusively in the TM of the hypothalamus, from where they project to practically all brain regions, with ventral areas (hypothalamus, basal forebrain, amygdala) receiving a particularly strong innervation. The intrinsic electrophysiological properties of TM neurons (slow spontaneous firing, broad action potentials, deep afterhyperpolarisations, etc.) are extremely similar to other aminergic neurons. Their firing rate varies across the sleep-wake cycle, being highest during waking and lowest during rapid-eye movement sleep. In contrast to other aminergic neurons somatodendritic autoreceptors (H 3 ) do not activate an inwardly rectifying potassium channel but instead control firing by inhibiting voltage-dependent calcium channels. Histamine release is enhanced under extreme conditions such as dehydration or hypoglycemia or by a variety of stressors. Histamine activates four types of receptors. H 1 receptors are mainly postsynaptically located and are coupled positively to phospholipase C. High densities are found especially in the hypothalamus and other limbic regions. Activation of these receptors causes large depolarisations via blockade of a leak potassium conductance, activation of a non-specific cation channel or activation of a sodium–calcium exchanger. H 2 receptors are also mainly postsynaptically located and are coupled positively to adenylyl cyclase. High densities are found in hippocampus, amygdala and basal ganglia. Activation of these receptors also leads to mainly excitatory effects through blockade of calcium-dependent potassium channels and modulation of the hyperpolarisation-activated cation channel. H 3 receptors are exclusively presynaptically located and are negatively coupled to adenylyl cyclase. High densities are found in the basal ganglia. These receptors mediated presynaptic inhibition of histamine release and the release of other neurotransmitters, most likely via inhibition of presynaptic calcium channels. Finally, histamine modulates the glutamate NMDA receptor via an action at the polyamine binding site. The central histamine system is involved in many central nervous system functions: arousal; anxiety; activation of the sympathetic nervous system; the stress-related release of hormones from the pituitary and of central aminergic neurotransmitters; antinociception; water retention and suppression of eating. A role for the neuronal histamine system as a danger response system is proposed.
Progress in Neurobiology – Elsevier
Published: Apr 1, 2001
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera
Read and print from thousands of top scholarly journals.
Already have an account? Log in
Bookmark this article. You can see your Bookmarks on your DeepDyve Library.
Copy and paste the desired citation format or use the link below to download a file formatted for EndNote
EndNoteExport to EndNote
ok to continue