GSK3β interacting protein (GSKIP) is a naturally occurring negative regulator of GSK3β and retains both the Protein Kinase A Regulatory subunit binding (PKA-RII) domain and GSK3β interacting domain. Of these two domains, we found that PKA-RII is required for forming a working complex comprising PKA/GSKIP/GSK3β/Drp1 to influence phosphorylation of Drp1 Ser637. In this study, bioinformatics and experimental explorations re-analyzing GSKIP's biofunctions suggest that the evolutionarily conserved Domain of Unknown Function (DUF727) is an ancestral prototype of GSKIP in prokaryotes, and acquired the C-terminal GSK3β binding site (tail) in invertebrates except for Saccharomyces spp., after which the N-terminal PKA-RII binding region (head) evolved in vertebrates. These two regions mutually influence each other and modulate GSKIP binding to GSK3β in yeast two-hybrid assays and co-immunoprecipitation. Molecular modeling showed that mammalian GSKIP could form a dimer through the L130 residue (GSK3β binding site) rather than V41/L45 residues. In contrast, V41/L45P mutant facilitated a gain-of-function effect on GSKIP dimerization, further influencing binding behavior to GSK3β compared to GSKIP wild-type (wt). The V41/L45 residues are not only responsible for PKA RII binding that controls GSK3β activity, but also affect dimerization of GSKIP monomer, with net results of gain-of-function in GSKIP-GSK3β interaction. In addition to its reported role in modulating Drp1, Ser637 phosphorylation caused mitochondrial elongation; we postulated that GSKIP might be involved in the Wnt signaling pathway as a scavenger to recruit GSK3β away from the β-catenin destruction complex and as a competitor to compete for GSK3β binding, resulting in accumulation of S675 phosphorylated β-catenin.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research – Elsevier
Published: Aug 1, 2018
It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.
Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.
All for just $49/month
Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly
Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.
Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.
Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.
All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.
“Hi guys, I cannot tell you how much I love this resource. Incredible. I really believe you've hit the nail on the head with this site in regards to solving the research-purchase issue.”Daniel C.
“Whoa! It’s like Spotify but for academic articles.”@Phil_Robichaud
“I must say, @deepdyve is a fabulous solution to the independent researcher's problem of #access to #information.”@deepthiw
“My last article couldn't be possible without the platform @deepdyve that makes journal papers cheaper.”@JoseServera