1 Introduction</h5> Childhood overweight and obesity are worldwide health problems  . Prevalence rates have reached very high levels during the past decades  , although there seems to be a trend towards stabilization at a still alarmingly high level [3,4] . Many obese children and adolescents already present with features of the metabolic syndrome, including disturbed glucose metabolism, dyslipidaemia, elevated transaminases, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and others [5–10] . Especially abdominal obesity, defined as increased waist circumference, is associated with increased risk for cardiometabolic comorbidities and the metabolic syndrome already in childhood [11,12] . Thus, early and effective treatment of childhood obesity and prevention of comorbidities are essential, and regular physical activity and the avoidance of sedentary habits play an important role not only for the stabilization or reduction of body weight but also for the avoidance of associated cardiometabolic comorbidities and for psychosocial well-being  . A recent guideline on prevention of type 2 diabetes in adults provides clear recommendations: Even a modest change in lifestyle that includes adopting a healthy diet, increasing physical activity and maintaining a healthy body weight, may effectively prevent the risk for diabetes later in life, and these results have since
Metabolism – Elsevier
Published: Mar 1, 2014
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