1 Introduction</h5> Depressive symptoms among adolescents are a significant health problem worldwide. Recent research conducted in the U.S. estimates that 20–40% of American adolescents report experiencing depressive symptoms ( Peterson, Compas, & Brooks-Gunn, 1992; Repetto, Zimmerman, & Caldwell, 2004 ). According to surveys on the prevalence of depressive symptoms in Korean adolescents, almost 40% of middle school and high school students have experienced probable depressive symptoms, and 21.2% have experienced definite depressive symptoms ( Cho et al., 2001 ). Depression is one of the major predictors of suicide, and is highly related to other problems of maladjustment such as low self-esteem and self-efficacy ( Kerr & Stattin, 2000 ), behavioral problems ( Needham, 2007 ), and poor academic performance ( Jacobson & Crockett, 2000 ). Adolescent depression is a serious problem and has been a major focus for adolescent mental health literature.</P>Depression has been believed to change during the course of development, and longitudinal studies have examined these changes empirically ( Cho, 2009; Garber, Keiley, & Martin, 2002; Kim & Cicchetti, 2006 ). However, these developmental changes may vary across individuals, and the change pattern of depression can be better understood by identifying the factors that explain these
Children and Youth Services Review – Elsevier
Published: Sep 1, 2013
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